Abstract

Modeling of the polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) temporal changes in long fiber routes represents a critical aspect of system outage characterization. In this paper, an analysis of the PMD temporal statistics in links obeying the recently proposed hinge model is presented. The analytical expression of the differential group delay probability density function is derived and used to show that the outage probability is channel specific in a wavelength-division-multiplexed system. The existence of outage-free channels, which represents one of the most important implications of the hinge model, is demonstrated and quantified. The frequency dependence of the temporal statistics is also characterized, and an expression for PMD-induced pulse broadening is derived.

© 2006 IEEE

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IEEE LEOS Newslett. (1)

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N. J. Frigo, M. Tur, "Physical mechanism for polarization mode dispersion temporal dynamics," IEEE LEOS Newslett. 18, 4-6 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, N. J. Frigo, "Polarization-mode dispersion of installed recent vintage fiber as a parametric function of temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 209-211 (2004).

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, "Statistics of the DGD in PMD emulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1840-1842 (2004).

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, P. Magill, N. J. Frigo, C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, "Outage probabilities for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345-347 (2005).

H. Kogelnik, P. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, "First-order PMD outage for the hinge model," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1208-1210 (2005).

C. D. Poole, R. W. Track, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. A. Fishman, "Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization mode dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 68-70 (1991).

P. J. Winzer, H. Kogelnik, K. Ramanan, "Precise outage specifications for first-order PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 449-451 (2004).

M. Boroditsky, K. Cornick, C. Antonelli, M. Brodsky, S. D. Dods, N. J. Frigo, P. Magill, "Comparison of system penalties from first and multi-order polarization-mode dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1650-1652 (2005).

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, "Analytical theory for PMD compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 50-52 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

F. Curti, B. Daino, G. De Marchis, F. Matera, "Statistical treatment of the evolution of the principal states of polarization in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1162-1166 (1990).

M. Karlsson, "Probability density functions of the differential group delay in optical fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 324-331 (2001).

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, P. A. Andrekson, "Long-term measurement of PMD and polarization drift in installed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 941-951 (2000).

C. T. Allen, P. K. Kondamuri, D. L. Richards, D. C. Hague, "Measured temporal and spectral PMD characteristics and their implications for network-level mitigation approaches," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 941-951 (2003).

J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. (1)

R. Barakat, "Isotropic random flights," J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. 6, 796-804 (1973).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N. J. Frigo, M. Tur, "Persistence of spectral variations in DGD statistics," Opt. Exp. 13, 4090-4095 (2005).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Philos. Mag. (1)

J. W. S. Rayleigh, "On the problem of random vibrations and of random flights in one, two and three dimensions," Philos. Mag. 37, 321-347 (1919).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

L. R. G. Treloar, "The statistical length of long-chain molecules," Trans. Faraday Soc. 42, 77-82 (1946).

Other (9)

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB (Academic, 2002).

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N. J. Frigo, M. Tur, "A ‘hinge’ model for the temporal dynamics of polarization mode dispersion," Laser Electro-Optics Society, San Juan, PR (2004), Paper MJ5.

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, N. J. Frigo, "Evidence for parametric dependence of PMD on temperature in installed 0.05 ps/km1/2 fiber," Proc. ECOC (2002) pp. 1-2.

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, N. J. Frigo, "Long-term PMD characterization of installed fibers—How much time is adequate?," Optical Fiber Communication Anaheim, CA Paper FI2.

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, N. J. Frigo, P. Magill, M. Tur, "Field PMD measurements through a commercial, Raman-amplified ULH transmission system," LEOS PMD Summer Topical Meeting Vancouver, BC, Canada (2003) Paper MB3.3.

R. Caponi, B. Riposati, A. Rossano, M. Schiano, "WDM design issues with highly correlated WDM spectra of buried optical cables," Optical Fiber Communication Anaheim, CA (2002) Paper ThI5.

M. Schiano, "PMD measurements on installed fibers and polarization sensitive components," PMD Venice Summer School Venice, Italy (2002)Venice, Italy.

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N. J. Frigo, M. Tur, "Channel-to-channel variation of non-Maxwellian statistics of DGD in a field installed system," European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden (2004) Paper Wel.4.1.

K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, N. J. Frigo, M. Brodsky, S. Dods, P. Magill, "Experimental comparison of system penalties due to 1st order and multi-order polarization mode dispersion," Optical Fiber Communications Anaheim, CA (2005), Paper OFF6.

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