Abstract

In this paper, a model describing the vector interaction of an intense backward-propagating Raman pump and a weak forward-propagating Stokes signal in randomly birefringent fibers is proposed. The model accounts for the losses, the Raman interaction, and the linear and nonlinear birefringence. Realistic characteristics of the backward-propagation-birefringence vector have been originally accounted for. Numerical solutions show that polarized-backward-Raman amplifiers can have gain fluctuations larger than previously reported because of linear- and nonlinear-birefringence effects. Moreover, the gain mean depends on the signal and pump state of polarization imposed at the amplifier input or output. Simple formulas are derived for predicting the gain mean when nonlinear effects can be neglected.

© 2006 IEEE

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IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 3-16 (2001).

M. N. Islam, "Raman amplifiers for telecommunications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 548-559 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

C. R .S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

M. Karasek, J. Kanka, J. Radil, "Analysis of channel addition/removal response in all-optical gain clamped cascade of lumped Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2271-2278 (2004).

G. J. Foschini, C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of polarization mode dispersion in single mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1439-1456 (1991).

P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, "Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 148-157 (1996).

F. Corsi, A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Polarization mode dispersion characterization of single-mode optical fiber using backscattering technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1832-1843 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (4)

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 107-110 (1947).

P. K. A. Wai, W. L. Kath, C. R. Menyuk, J. W. Zhang, "Nonlinear polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B14, 2967-2979 (1997).

Q. Lin, G. P. Agrawal, "Vector theory of stimulated Raman scattering and its applications to fiber-based Raman amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B20, 1616-1631 (2003).

M. Nakazawa, M. Tokuda, Y. Negishi, N. Uchida, "Active transmission line: Light amplification by backward-stimulated Raman scattering in polarization-maintaining optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B1, 80-85 (1984).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. Bononi, M. Papararo, M. Fuochi, "Transient gain dynamics in saturated Raman amplifiers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 91-123 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (1)

R. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, T.-T. Yang, "Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear susceptibilities of glasses," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 11, 964-967 (1975).

Other (8)

A. Berntson, S. Popov, E. Vanin, G. Jacobsen, J. Karlsson, "Polarization dependence and gain tilt of Raman amplifiers for WDM systems," Proc. OFC Tech. Dig. (2001) pp. MI2-1-MI2-2.

P. Ebrahimi, M. C. Hauer, Q. Yu, R. Khosravani, D. Gurkan, D. W. Kim, D. W. Lee, A. E. Willner, "Statistics of polarization dependent gain in Raman fiber amplifiers due to PMD," Proc. CLEO Tech. Dig. (2001) pp. 143-144.

H. H. Kee, C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, "Statistical properties of polarization dependent gain in fibre Raman amplifiers," Proc. OFC Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 180-181.

Y. Emori, S. Matsushita, S. Namiki, "Cost-effective depolarized diode pump unit designed for C-band flat-gain Raman amplifiers to control EDFA gain profile," OFC Conf. (2000) Paper FF4.

T. Tokura, T. Kogure, T. Sugihara, K. Shimizu, T. Mizuochi, K. Motoshima, "Pump light depolarization method for low PDG Raman amplification," OFC Conf. (2002) Paper ThGG24.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Santagiustina, L. Ursini, "Backward Raman amplification in randomly birefringent and spun fibers," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA (2006) Paper OWD6.

B. Øksendal, Stochastic Differential Equations (Springer-Verlag, 1985).

M. San Miguel, R. Toral, Instabilities and Nonequilibrium Structures IV (Kluwer, 1993).

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