Abstract

A fully automatic deterministic maximum–minimum search method for fast accurate polarization-dependent loss (PDL) and degree of polarization (DOP) characterization is described. It is shown theoretically, based on a three-dimensional (3-D) surface model, that the method can unambiguously determine PDL and DOP values. Because it measures PDL and DOP values according to their definitions and without the need for scanning over a large number of polarization states or engaging in extensive intermediate calculations, this method provides the attractive features of high speed, wide measurement range, wavelength insensitivity, and calibration-free operation. The new PDL/DOP characterization method was experimentally demonstrated in a prototype instrument using an in-line polarization controller with ultralow activation loss and PDL.

© 2006 IEEE

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IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 3-16 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

F. Bruyere, O. Audouin, "Penalty in long-haul optical amplified system due to polarization dependent loss and gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 654-656 (1994).

L. Yan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, A. Willner, "Experimental demonstration of the system performance degradation due to combined effect of polarization-dependent loss with polarization mode dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 224-226 (2002).

N. Kim, D. Lee, H. Yoon, J. Park, N. Park, "Limitation of PMD compensation due to polarization-dependent loss in high-speed optical transmission links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 104-106 (2002).

B. Heffner, "Deterministic, analytically complete measurement of polarization-dependent transmission through optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 451-454 (1992).

L.-S. Yan, X. Yao, C. Yu, Y. Wang, L. Lin, Z. Chen, A. E. Willner, "High-speed and highly repeatable polarization-state analyzer for 40-Gb/s system performance monitoring," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 643-645 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

X. Zhou, P. Magill, M. Birk, "Model for polarization-dependent gain due to pump depletion in a WDM system with forward-pumped Raman amplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1056-1062 (2005).

S. M. R. M Nezam, L. Yan, J. E. McGeehan, Y. Shi, A. E. Willner, S. Yao, "Enhancing the dynamic range and DGD monitoring windows in DOP-based DGD monitors using symmetric and asymmetric partial optical filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1094-1102 (2004).

L.-S. Yan, X. S. Yao, Y. Shi, A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous monitoring of both optical signal-to-noise-ratio and polarization-mode-dispersion using polarization scrambling and polarization-beam-splitting," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3290-3294 (2005).

A. El Amari, N. Gisin, B. Perny, H. Zbinden, C. W. Zimmer, "Statistical prediction and experimental verification of concatenations of fiber optic components with polarization dependent loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 332-339 (1998).

R. Craig, S. Gilbert, P. Hale, "High accuracy, nonmechanical approach to polarization dependent transmission measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1285-1294 (1998).

R. Craig, "Accurate spectral characterization of polarization-dependent loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 432-437 (2003).

E. Lichtman, "Limitations imposed by polarization dependent gain and loss on all-optical ultralong communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 906-913 (1995).

B. Szafraniec, G. Sanders, "Theory of polarization evolution in interferometric fiber-optic depolarized gyros," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 579-590 (1999).

F. Heismann, "Analysis of a reset-free polarization controller for fast automatic polarization stabilization in fiber-optic transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 690-699 (1994).

Opt. Commun. (2)

L.-S. Yan, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, "Uniformly distributed states of polarization on the Poincare sphere using an improved polarization scrambling scheme," Opt. Commun. 249, 43-50 (2005).

N. Gisin, B. Huttner, "Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent losses in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 142, 119-125 (1997).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (13)

PolaRite II polarization controller, General Photonics Corp http://www.generalphotonics.com/PolariteIImanual.htm.

E. Collett, Polarized Light in Fiber Optics (PolaWave Group, 2003) pp. 219-225.

J. Kim, B. W. Lee, "A new high speed measurement method of polarization dependent loss," Proc. NFOEC (2001).

X. Yao, Fiberopt. Prod. News (Reed Elsevier, 2003).

R. M. A. Azzam, M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1987).

W. H. Beyer, CRC Standard Mathematical Tables (CRC, 1987) pp. 220-221.

TelcordiaGeneric Requirements for Passive Optical Components (2001) GR-1209-CORE, issue 3.

B. Nyman, D. Favin, G. Wolter, "Automated system for measuring polarization dependent loss," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Tech. Dig. pp. 230-231.

D. Favin, B. Nyman, and G. Wolter, “System and Method for Measuring Polarization Dependent Loss,” US Patent 5371597, Dec. 6, 1994.

C. Hentschel, S. Schmidt, PDL Measurements Using the HP 8169 a Polarization Controller (Agilent Technologies, 2002).

TIA/EIA-455-198, Measurement of Polarization Dependence of Insertion Loss of Single-Mode Fiberoptic Components by a Mueller Matrix Method (TIA 455-198). Arlington, VA: Telecommun. Ind. Assoc., Dec. (2002).

TIA/EIA-455-157Measurement of Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) of Single-Mode Fiber Optic Components (ANSI/TIA-455-157) Arlington, VA: Telecommun. Ind. Assoc., (Telecommun. Ind. Assoc., 1995)Arlington, VA.

C. Hentschel, D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

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