Abstract

The authors report on a design and demonstration of a quartic-style optical true-time-delay device based on a White cell. This device is designed for 81 sequential time delays with an incremental delay of 243 ps and a maximum delay of 19.683 ns. The time delays are implemented by free-space translations, with lens trains as needed for beam containment. A digital microelectromechanical tilting micromirror array is used to send the light into different delay paths.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, The Artech House Optoelectronics Library (Artech House, 1994).
  2. B. Kanack, M. Boysel, C. Goldsmith, C. Menni, G. Magel, C. Takle, "Optical time delay network for phased arrays," Proc. Transition Opt. Processors Into Syst. (1993) pp. 114-132.
  3. L. Eldada, "Laser-fabricated delay lines in GaAs for optically steered phased-array radar," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2034-2039 (1995).
  4. D. D. Curtis, L. M. Sharpe, "True time delay using fiber optic delay lines," Proc. Int. Symp. Antennas and Propag. (1990) pp. 766-769.
  5. W. Ng, A. A. Watson, "The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1124-1131 (1991).
  6. A. Goutzoulis, K. Davies, J. Zomp, P. Hyrcak, A. Johnson, "Development and field demonstration of a hardware-compressive fiber-optic true-time-delay steering system for phased-array antennas," Appl. Opt. 33, 8173-8185 (1994).
  7. V. Kaman, Z. Zheng, R. J. Helkey, C. Pusarla, J. E. Bowers, "A 32-element 8-bit photonic true-time delay system base on a 288 $\times$ 288 3-D MEMS optical switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 849-851 (2003).
  8. J.-D. Shin, B.-S. Lee, B.-G. Kim, "Optical true time delay feeder for X-band phased array antennas composed of 2 $\times$ 2 optical MEMS switches and fiber delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1364-1366 (2004).
  9. D. A. Cohen, Y. Chang, A. G. J. Levi, H. R. Fetterman, I. L. Newberg, "Optically controlled serially fed phased array sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1683-1685 (1996).
  10. D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Transmit-receive module of multiwavelength optically controlled phased-array antennas," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1018-1019 (1998).
  11. H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, P. B. Kanack, M. Boysel, C. Goldsmith, C. Menni, G. Magel, C. Takle, P. Payson, H. W. Klumpe, III"A photonic implementation of a wide-band nulling system for phased arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 725-727 (1998).
  12. O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, M. Tur, "Implementation of photonic true-time delay using high-order-mode dispersion compensating fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).
  13. Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, C. Lee, "Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structured X-band phased array antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
  14. D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, J. L. Dexter, "Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 861-867 (2006).
  15. P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "A wide-band 4fiber-optic true time-steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).
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  19. D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, "Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays," Appl. Opt. 8, 1824-1828 (1996).
  20. H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, G. J. Simonis, "Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 5, 414-416 (1995).
  21. N. A. Riza, "Polarization-based fiber optic delay lines," Proc. SPIE—Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VII (1995) pp. 120-129.
  22. Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, O. Shibata, Y. Karasawa, "Receive mode of optical signal processing multibeam array antennas," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 251-253 (1998).
  23. A. Kiruluta, G. S. Pati, G. Kriehn, P. E. X. Silveira, A. W. Sarto, K. Wagner, "Spatio-temporal operator formalism for holographic recording and diffractions in a photorefractive-based true-time-delay phased-array processor," Appl. Opt. 42, 5334-5350 (2003).
  24. Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).
  25. R. Mital, C. M. Warnky, B. L. Anderson, "Design and demonstration of a higher order polynomial cell—Octic cell," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 982-990 (2006).
  26. B. L. Anderson, R. Mital, "Polynomial-based optical true-time delay devices with microelectromechanical mirror arrays," Appl. Opt. 41, 5449-5461 (2002).
  27. J. White, "Long optical paths of large aperture," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 32, 285-288 (1942).
  28. B. L. Anderson, S. A. Collins, Jr.E. A. Beecher, C. A. Klein, S. B. Brown, "Optically produced true-time delays for phased antenna arrays," Appl. Opt. 36, 8493-8503 (1997).
  29. B. L. Anderson, C. D. Liddle, "Optical true time delay for phased-array antennas: Demonstration of a quadratic White Cell," Appl. Opt. 41, 4912-4921 (2002).
  30. A. Rader, B. L. Anderson, "Demonstration of a linear optical true-time delay device by use of a microelectromechanical mirror array," Appl. Opt. 42, 1409-1416 (2003).
  31. B. L. Anderson, D. J. Rabb, C. M. Warnky, F. M. Abou-Galala, "Binary optical true time delay based on the white cell: Design and demonstration," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1886-1895 (2006).
  32. S. Kunathikom, B. L. Anderson, S. A. Collins, Jr."Design and delay elements in a binary optical true-time delay device that uses a white cell," Appl. Opt. 42, 6984-6994 (2003).
  33. B. L. Anderson, V. Argueta-Diaz, F. Abou-Galala, G. Radhakrishnan, R. J. Higgins, "Optical cross-connect switch based on tip/tilt micromirrors in a white cell," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 579-593 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (9)

A. Goutzoulis, K. Davies, J. Zomp, P. Hyrcak, A. Johnson, "Development and field demonstration of a hardware-compressive fiber-optic true-time-delay steering system for phased-array antennas," Appl. Opt. 33, 8173-8185 (1994).

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "Dynamic null steering in an ultrawideband time-steered array antenna," Appl. Opt. 37, 5488-5494 (1998).

D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, "Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays," Appl. Opt. 8, 1824-1828 (1996).

A. Kiruluta, G. S. Pati, G. Kriehn, P. E. X. Silveira, A. W. Sarto, K. Wagner, "Spatio-temporal operator formalism for holographic recording and diffractions in a photorefractive-based true-time-delay phased-array processor," Appl. Opt. 42, 5334-5350 (2003).

B. L. Anderson, S. A. Collins, Jr.E. A. Beecher, C. A. Klein, S. B. Brown, "Optically produced true-time delays for phased antenna arrays," Appl. Opt. 36, 8493-8503 (1997).

B. L. Anderson, C. D. Liddle, "Optical true time delay for phased-array antennas: Demonstration of a quadratic White Cell," Appl. Opt. 41, 4912-4921 (2002).

A. Rader, B. L. Anderson, "Demonstration of a linear optical true-time delay device by use of a microelectromechanical mirror array," Appl. Opt. 42, 1409-1416 (2003).

B. L. Anderson, R. Mital, "Polynomial-based optical true-time delay devices with microelectromechanical mirror arrays," Appl. Opt. 41, 5449-5461 (2002).

S. Kunathikom, B. L. Anderson, S. A. Collins, Jr."Design and delay elements in a binary optical true-time delay device that uses a white cell," Appl. Opt. 42, 6984-6994 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. L. Anderson, V. Argueta-Diaz, F. Abou-Galala, G. Radhakrishnan, R. J. Higgins, "Optical cross-connect switch based on tip/tilt micromirrors in a white cell," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 579-593 (2003).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (2)

Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, O. Shibata, Y. Karasawa, "Receive mode of optical signal processing multibeam array antennas," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 251-253 (1998).

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, G. J. Simonis, "Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 5, 414-416 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (11)

Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).

R. Taylor, S. Forrest, "Steering of an optically-driven true-time delay phased-array antenna based on a broad-band coherent WDM architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 144-146 (1998).

B. Vidal, D. Madrid, J. L. Corral, J. Marti, "Novel photonic true-time-delay beamformer based on the free spectral range periodicity of arrayed waveguide gratings and fiber dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1614-1616 (2002).

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "A wide-band 4fiber-optic true time-steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).

V. Kaman, Z. Zheng, R. J. Helkey, C. Pusarla, J. E. Bowers, "A 32-element 8-bit photonic true-time delay system base on a 288 $\times$ 288 3-D MEMS optical switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 849-851 (2003).

J.-D. Shin, B.-S. Lee, B.-G. Kim, "Optical true time delay feeder for X-band phased array antennas composed of 2 $\times$ 2 optical MEMS switches and fiber delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1364-1366 (2004).

D. A. Cohen, Y. Chang, A. G. J. Levi, H. R. Fetterman, I. L. Newberg, "Optically controlled serially fed phased array sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1683-1685 (1996).

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Transmit-receive module of multiwavelength optically controlled phased-array antennas," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1018-1019 (1998).

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, P. B. Kanack, M. Boysel, C. Goldsmith, C. Menni, G. Magel, C. Takle, P. Payson, H. W. Klumpe, III"A photonic implementation of a wide-band nulling system for phased arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 725-727 (1998).

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, M. Tur, "Implementation of photonic true-time delay using high-order-mode dispersion compensating fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, C. Lee, "Dispersion-enhanced photonic crystal fiber array for a true time-delay structured X-band phased array antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, J. L. Dexter, "Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 861-867 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

W. Ng, A. A. Watson, "The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1124-1131 (1991).

L. Eldada, "Laser-fabricated delay lines in GaAs for optically steered phased-array radar," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2034-2039 (1995).

R. Mital, C. M. Warnky, B. L. Anderson, "Design and demonstration of a higher order polynomial cell—Octic cell," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 982-990 (2006).

B. L. Anderson, D. J. Rabb, C. M. Warnky, F. M. Abou-Galala, "Binary optical true time delay based on the white cell: Design and demonstration," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1886-1895 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

J. White, "Long optical paths of large aperture," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 32, 285-288 (1942).

Other (4)

N. A. Riza, "Polarization-based fiber optic delay lines," Proc. SPIE—Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VII (1995) pp. 120-129.

D. D. Curtis, L. M. Sharpe, "True time delay using fiber optic delay lines," Proc. Int. Symp. Antennas and Propag. (1990) pp. 766-769.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, The Artech House Optoelectronics Library (Artech House, 1994).

B. Kanack, M. Boysel, C. Goldsmith, C. Menni, G. Magel, C. Takle, "Optical time delay network for phased arrays," Proc. Transition Opt. Processors Into Syst. (1993) pp. 114-132.

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