Abstract

This paper details an approach for shifting the gain of an S-band thulium-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) that employs a high thulium concentration doping technique. The technique can shift the gain from the conventional gain band to the promising longer wavelength region by forming a suitable population inversion between the <sup>3</sup>H<sub>4</sub> and <sup>3</sup>F<sub>4</sub> levels that results from cross relaxation between thulium ions. It has been shown that, unlike with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, the interaction between thulium ions caused by the high concentration doping increases the efficiency up to a thulium concentration of 6000 ppm. The authors also describe the particular characteristics of Tm ions that appear when the fiber length and pump power ratio between the forward and backward pump powers in bidirectional pumping are varied. Furthermore, the authors optimized the thulium concentration, fiber length, and pump power ratio between the forward and backward pump powers, so that a high gain and a low noise figure (NF) in the S-band are obtained. As a result, the TDFA achieved a gain of 22 dB and NFs of < 6 dB in the 1477- to 1507-nm wavelength region at a thulium concentration of 6000 ppm.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Moerie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasawara, T. Ono, "10.92 Tb/s (273 $\times$ 40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeated transmission experiment," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. AnaheimCA (2001) PD24.
  2. J. Kani, K. Hattori, M. Jinno, S. Aisawa, T. Sakamoto, K. Oguchi, "Trinal-wavelength-band WDM transmission over dispersion-shifted fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. San DiegoCA (1999) Paper WJ2.
  3. Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 $\times$ 43-Gb/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1569-1570 (2002).
  4. J. Bromage, J. C. Bouteiller, H. J. Thiele, K. Brar, J. H. Park, C. Headley, L. E. Nelson, Y. Qian, J. DeMarco, S. Stulz, L. Leng, B. Zhu, B. J. Eggleton, "S-band all-Raman amplifiers for 40 $\times$ 10 Gb/s transmission over 6 $\times$ 100 km of non-zero dispersion fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. AnaheimCA (2001) PD4.
  5. E. Ishikawa, M. Nishihara, Y. Sato, C. Ohshima, Y. Sugaya, J. Kumasako, "Novel 1500 nm-band EDFA with discrete Raman amplifier," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2001) pp. 48-49.
  6. H. Ono, M. Yamada, M. Shimizu, "S-band erbium doped fiber amplifiers with a multistage configuration—Design, characterization, and gain tilt compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2240-2246 (2003).
  7. M. A. Arbore, Y. Zhou, G. Keaton, T. Kane, "34 dB gain at 1500 nm in S-band with distributed ASE suppression," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2002) pp. 2.2.2.
  8. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, "Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 $\mu\hbox{m}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880-1889 (1995).
  9. R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, "Highly efficient 1.064 $\mu\hbox{m}$ upconversion pumped 1.47 $\mu\hbox{m}$ thulium doped fluoride fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 30, 1684-1685 (1994).
  10. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, T. Ono, "Laser-diode-pumped highly-efficient gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier operating in the 1480–1510 nm band," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. AnaheimCA (2001) TuQ4.
  11. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, T. Ono, "1.49-$\mu\hbox{m}$-band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier for WDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1826-1837 (2002).
  12. F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, D. Bayart, "48% power conversion efficiency in single pump gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 37, 943-945 (2001).
  13. A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Cauvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, "Characterization of efficient dual-wavelength (1050 $+$ 800 nm) pumping scheme for thulium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200-202 (2003).
  14. S. Aozasa, T. Sakamoto, T. Kanamori, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, "Gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifiers employing novel high thulium concentration doping technique," Electron. Lett. 35, 418-419 (2000).
  15. S. Aozasa, H. Masuda, H. Ono, T. Sakamoto, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, M. Shimizu, "1480–1510 nm band Tm doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) with high power conversion efficiency of 42%," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. AnaheimCA (2001) PD1.
  16. S. Aozasa, H. Masuda, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, M. Shimizu, "Gain-shifted TDFA employing high concentration doping technique with high internal power conversion efficiency of 70%," Electron. Lett. 38, 361-363 (2002).
  17. H. Masuda, S. Aozasa, M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band hybrid amplifier consisting of two dispersion-compensating fibers for Raman amplification and thulium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 38, 500-502 (2002).
  18. B. J. Ainslie, "A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 220-227 (1991).

2003 (2)

H. Ono, M. Yamada, M. Shimizu, "S-band erbium doped fiber amplifiers with a multistage configuration—Design, characterization, and gain tilt compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2240-2246 (2003).

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Cauvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, "Characterization of efficient dual-wavelength (1050 $+$ 800 nm) pumping scheme for thulium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200-202 (2003).

2002 (4)

S. Aozasa, H. Masuda, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, M. Shimizu, "Gain-shifted TDFA employing high concentration doping technique with high internal power conversion efficiency of 70%," Electron. Lett. 38, 361-363 (2002).

H. Masuda, S. Aozasa, M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band hybrid amplifier consisting of two dispersion-compensating fibers for Raman amplification and thulium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 38, 500-502 (2002).

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, T. Ono, "1.49-$\mu\hbox{m}$-band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier for WDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1826-1837 (2002).

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 $\times$ 43-Gb/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1569-1570 (2002).

2001 (1)

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, D. Bayart, "48% power conversion efficiency in single pump gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 37, 943-945 (2001).

2000 (1)

S. Aozasa, T. Sakamoto, T. Kanamori, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, "Gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifiers employing novel high thulium concentration doping technique," Electron. Lett. 35, 418-419 (2000).

1995 (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, "Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 $\mu\hbox{m}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880-1889 (1995).

1994 (1)

R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, "Highly efficient 1.064 $\mu\hbox{m}$ upconversion pumped 1.47 $\mu\hbox{m}$ thulium doped fluoride fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 30, 1684-1685 (1994).

1991 (1)

B. J. Ainslie, "A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 220-227 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (6)

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 $\times$ 43-Gb/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1569-1570 (2002).

R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, "Highly efficient 1.064 $\mu\hbox{m}$ upconversion pumped 1.47 $\mu\hbox{m}$ thulium doped fluoride fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 30, 1684-1685 (1994).

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, D. Bayart, "48% power conversion efficiency in single pump gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 37, 943-945 (2001).

S. Aozasa, T. Sakamoto, T. Kanamori, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, "Gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifiers employing novel high thulium concentration doping technique," Electron. Lett. 35, 418-419 (2000).

S. Aozasa, H. Masuda, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, M. Shimizu, "Gain-shifted TDFA employing high concentration doping technique with high internal power conversion efficiency of 70%," Electron. Lett. 38, 361-363 (2002).

H. Masuda, S. Aozasa, M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band hybrid amplifier consisting of two dispersion-compensating fibers for Raman amplification and thulium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 38, 500-502 (2002).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, "Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 $\mu\hbox{m}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880-1889 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Cauvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, J. F. Martins-Filho, M. B. Costa e Silva, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, "Characterization of efficient dual-wavelength (1050 $+$ 800 nm) pumping scheme for thulium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 200-202 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, T. Ono, "1.49-$\mu\hbox{m}$-band gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier for WDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1826-1837 (2002).

B. J. Ainslie, "A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 220-227 (1991).

H. Ono, M. Yamada, M. Shimizu, "S-band erbium doped fiber amplifiers with a multistage configuration—Design, characterization, and gain tilt compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2240-2246 (2003).

Other (7)

M. A. Arbore, Y. Zhou, G. Keaton, T. Kane, "34 dB gain at 1500 nm in S-band with distributed ASE suppression," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2002) pp. 2.2.2.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, T. Ono, "Laser-diode-pumped highly-efficient gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier operating in the 1480–1510 nm band," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. AnaheimCA (2001) TuQ4.

J. Bromage, J. C. Bouteiller, H. J. Thiele, K. Brar, J. H. Park, C. Headley, L. E. Nelson, Y. Qian, J. DeMarco, S. Stulz, L. Leng, B. Zhu, B. J. Eggleton, "S-band all-Raman amplifiers for 40 $\times$ 10 Gb/s transmission over 6 $\times$ 100 km of non-zero dispersion fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. AnaheimCA (2001) PD4.

E. Ishikawa, M. Nishihara, Y. Sato, C. Ohshima, Y. Sugaya, J. Kumasako, "Novel 1500 nm-band EDFA with discrete Raman amplifier," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2001) pp. 48-49.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Moerie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasawara, T. Ono, "10.92 Tb/s (273 $\times$ 40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeated transmission experiment," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. AnaheimCA (2001) PD24.

J. Kani, K. Hattori, M. Jinno, S. Aisawa, T. Sakamoto, K. Oguchi, "Trinal-wavelength-band WDM transmission over dispersion-shifted fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. San DiegoCA (1999) Paper WJ2.

S. Aozasa, H. Masuda, H. Ono, T. Sakamoto, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, M. Shimizu, "1480–1510 nm band Tm doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) with high power conversion efficiency of 42%," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. AnaheimCA (2001) PD1.

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