Abstract

A novel technique to minimize the mode mismatch between the fiber and waveguide modes in integrating optical fiber to polymer waveguides is presented. The mode fields at the facets of the waveguides were tailored, optimizing the waveguide geometry as well as tuning the index of refraction of the lower cladding near the facets, by chemical composition. No additional processes were required after the core was deposited. The modified lower cladding can be integrated efficiently with any other lower-cladding material used in the remaining portion of the waveguide, resulting in hybrid waveguides. A power-coupling loss as low as 0.46 dB at the fiber-waveguide interfaces was demonstrated with the available fiber.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, "Multiple fiber end fire coupling with single-mode channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603-605 (1978).

C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, W. K. Burns, "High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 351-353 (1980).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos, M. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28, 2040-2041 (1982).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

O. G. Ramer, C. Nelson, C. Mohr, "Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 970-974 (1981).

R. C. Alferness, V. R. Ramaswamy, S. K. Korotky, M. D. Divino, L. L. Buhl, "Efficient single-mode fiber to titanium diffused lithium niobate waveguide coupling for $\lambda = 1.32\ \mu\hbox{m}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1807-1813 (1982).

J. J. Veselka, S. K. Korotky, "Optimization of $\hbox{Ti:LiNbO}_{3}$ optical waveguides and directional coupler switches for 1.56 $\mu\hbox{m}$ wavelength," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 933-938 (1986).

Y. Cai, T. Mizumoto, "An effective method for coupling single-mode fiber to thin-film waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 970-974 (1981).

A. Milton, W. Burns, "Mode coupling in optical waveguide horns," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 828-835 (1977).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

R. K. Winn, J. H. Harris, "Coupling from multimode to single-mode linear waveguides using horn-shaped structures," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-23, 92-97 (1975).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, "High-silica multimode channel waveguide structure for minimizing fiber-waveguide-fiber coupling loss," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 277-282 (1986).

P. G. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, "Constant-width variable-index transition for efficient $\hbox{Ti:LiNbO}_{3}$ waveguide-fiber coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1246-1251 (1987).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Keil, A. Auracher, "Coupling of single-mode Ti-diffused $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ waveguides to single-mode fibers," Opt. Commun. 30, 23-28 (1979).

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, "Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fiber coupling," Opt. Eng. 39, 1507-1516 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

Polyimides having an unusually low and tunable electrical resistivity useful for electrical and optical applications U.S. Patent 6 861 497 (2005).

A. J. Guenthner, K. R. Davis, L. Steinmetz, J. M. Pentony, New Developments in Coatings Technology (, 2006).

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, "Integrated polymer waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling," Proc. SPIE (Feb. 1997) pp. 65-76.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, A. Radojevic, R. Gerhardt, T. Izuhara, "Hybrid organic–inorganic optoelectronic subsystems on a chip," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 200-213.

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