Abstract

In this paper, the authors measure the quality of the delivered beam from hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCFs). The M<sup>2</sup> parameter is determined, and the near- to far-field transition is examined. The influence on these properties due to the presence of a core surround mode is evaluated. The applicability of the International Standards Organization 11146 : 1999 standard for M<sup>2</sup> measurement of the beam quality of HC-PCFs is discussed. Because they are dependent on the measurement parameters, such as choice of aperturing scheme and the axis of measurement, M<sup>2</sup> values could vary from 1.32 to 3.17 for the same output beam. This highlights the need for careful consideration when measuring and describing the beam quality delivered by these novel photonic fibers.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, "Beam quality of photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2267 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-23-7-2267.

Opt. Express (8)

S. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-3-173.

G. Humbert, J. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. Russell, D. Williams, P. Roberts, B. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1477.

N. Mortensen, J. Folkenberg, "Near-field to far-field transition of photonic crystal fibers: Symmetries and interference phenomena," Opt. Express 10, 475-481 (2002) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-11-475.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, H. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4080.

J. Shephard, W. MacPherson, R. Maier, J. Jones, D. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. George, P. Roberts, J. Knight, "Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7139-7144 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-18-7139.

J. Shephard, J. Jones, D. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. Knight, P. Russell, B. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004) http://www.opticsinfobase. org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-717.

P. Roberts, D. Williams, B. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. Wadsworth, T. Birks, J. Knight, P. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.

A. Dabirian, M. Akbari, N. Mortensen, "The radiated fields of the fundamental mode of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 3999-4004 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-3999.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

Laser and Laser-Related Equipment—Test Methods for Laser Beam Parameters—Beam Width, Divergence Angle and Beam Propagation Factor EN ISO 11146 (1999).

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