E. Lu, S. Zheng, "Parallel routing algorithms for nonblocking electronic and photonic switching networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 16, 702-713 (2005).

X. Jiang, P.-H. Ho, S. Horiguchi, "Performance modeling for all-optical photonic switches based on the vertical stacking of banyan network structures," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1620-1631 (2005).

F. Hwang, W.-D. Lin, "A general construction for nonblocking crosstalk-free photonic switching networks," Networks 42, 20-25 (2003).

X. Jiang, H. Shen, Md. M. Khander, S. Horiguchi, "Blocking behaviors of crosstalk-free optical Banyan networks on vertical stacking," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 982-993 (2003).

Y. Tscha, "Scheduling length for switching element disjoint multicasting in banyan-type switching networks," J. Syst. Architecture 48, 175-191 (2003).

W. Kabacinski, G. Danilewicz, "Wide-sense and strict-sense nonblocking operation of multicast multi-log2 n switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1025-1036 (2002).

T. T. Lee, S. Y. Liew, "Parallel routing algorithms in benes-clos networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

X. Shen, F. Yang, Y. Pan, "Equivalent permutation capabilities between time-division optical omega networks and non-optical extra-stage omega networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 518-524 (2001).

T.-S. Wong, C.-T. Lea, "Crosstalk reduction through wavelength assignment in wdm photonic switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1280-1287 (2001).

Y. Yang, J. Wang, "Optimal all-to-all personalized exchange in a class of optical multistage networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 12, 567-582 (2001).

G. Maier, A. Pattavina, "Design of photonic rearrangeable networks with zero first-order switching-element-crosstalk," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1268-1279 (2001).

M. Vaez, C. T. Lea, "Strictly nonblocking directional-coupler-based switching networks under crosstalk constraint," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 316-323 (2000).

M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Blocking performance with crosstalk consideration of the photonic switching networks based on electrooptical directional couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 381-387 (1999).

Y. Tscha, K.-H. Lee, "Yet another result on multi-log2n networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1425-1431 (1999).

C. Qiao, "A universal analytic model for photonic banyan networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1381-1389 (1998).

M. Mehdi Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Space-wavelength tradeoff in the design of nonblocking directional-coupler-based networks under crosstalk constraint," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1373-1379 (1998).

M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Wide-sense nonblocking banyan-type switching systems based on directional couplers," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1327-1332 (1998).

T. T. Lee, P. P. To, "Non-blocking properties of clos networks," DIMACS Series Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 42, 181-195 (1998).

V. Chinni, "Crosstalk in a lossy directional coupler switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1530-1535 (1995).

C. Qiao, G. Melhem, D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, "A time domain approach for avoiding crosstalk in optical blocking multistage interconnection networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1854-1862 (1994).

C. T. Lea, D. J. Shyy, "Tradeoff of horizontal decomposition versus vertical stacking in rearrangeable nonblocking networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 899-904 (1991).

C. T. Lea, "Multi-log2n networks and their applications in high speed electronic and photonic switching systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1740-1749 (1990).

C. T. Lea, "Bipartite graph design principle for photonic switching systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 529-538 (1990).

C. Kruskal, M. Snir, "The performance of multistage interconnection networks for multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-32, 1091-1098 (1983).

D. Nassimi, S. Sahni, "Parallel algorithms to set up the benes permutation network," IEEE Trans. Comput. COM-31, 148-154 (1982).

D. C. Opferman, N. T. Tsao-Wu, "On a class of rearrangeable switching networks," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 1579-1618 (1971).

V. Benes, "On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks," Bell Syst. Tech. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

V. Benes, "On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks," Bell Syst. Tech. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

D. C. Opferman, N. T. Tsao-Wu, "On a class of rearrangeable switching networks," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 1579-1618 (1971).

T. T. Lee, P. P. To, "Non-blocking properties of clos networks," DIMACS Series Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 42, 181-195 (1998).

M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Wide-sense nonblocking banyan-type switching systems based on directional couplers," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1327-1332 (1998).

X. Jiang, P.-H. Ho, S. Horiguchi, "Performance modeling for all-optical photonic switches based on the vertical stacking of banyan network structures," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1620-1631 (2005).

C. T. Lea, "Bipartite graph design principle for photonic switching systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 529-538 (1990).

C. Qiao, "A universal analytic model for photonic banyan networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1381-1389 (1998).

T.-S. Wong, C.-T. Lea, "Crosstalk reduction through wavelength assignment in wdm photonic switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1280-1287 (2001).

C. T. Lea, "Multi-log2n networks and their applications in high speed electronic and photonic switching systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1740-1749 (1990).

C. Kruskal, M. Snir, "The performance of multistage interconnection networks for multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-32, 1091-1098 (1983).

M. Vaez, C. T. Lea, "Strictly nonblocking directional-coupler-based switching networks under crosstalk constraint," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 316-323 (2000).

C. T. Lea, D. J. Shyy, "Tradeoff of horizontal decomposition versus vertical stacking in rearrangeable nonblocking networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 899-904 (1991).

G. Maier, A. Pattavina, "Design of photonic rearrangeable networks with zero first-order switching-element-crosstalk," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1268-1279 (2001).

Y. Tscha, K.-H. Lee, "Yet another result on multi-log2n networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1425-1431 (1999).

W. Kabacinski, G. Danilewicz, "Wide-sense and strict-sense nonblocking operation of multicast multi-log2 n switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1025-1036 (2002).

T. T. Lee, S. Y. Liew, "Parallel routing algorithms in benes-clos networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

D. Nassimi, S. Sahni, "Parallel algorithms to set up the benes permutation network," IEEE Trans. Comput. COM-31, 148-154 (1982).

E. Lu, S. Zheng, "Parallel routing algorithms for nonblocking electronic and photonic switching networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 16, 702-713 (2005).

Y. Yang, J. Wang, "Optimal all-to-all personalized exchange in a class of optical multistage networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 12, 567-582 (2001).

X. Shen, F. Yang, Y. Pan, "Equivalent permutation capabilities between time-division optical omega networks and non-optical extra-stage omega networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 518-524 (2001).

X. Jiang, H. Shen, Md. M. Khander, S. Horiguchi, "Blocking behaviors of crosstalk-free optical Banyan networks on vertical stacking," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 982-993 (2003).

M. Mehdi Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Space-wavelength tradeoff in the design of nonblocking directional-coupler-based networks under crosstalk constraint," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1373-1379 (1998).

M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Blocking performance with crosstalk consideration of the photonic switching networks based on electrooptical directional couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 381-387 (1999).

C. Qiao, G. Melhem, D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, "A time domain approach for avoiding crosstalk in optical blocking multistage interconnection networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1854-1862 (1994).

V. Chinni, "Crosstalk in a lossy directional coupler switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1530-1535 (1995).

Y. Tscha, "Scheduling length for switching element disjoint multicasting in banyan-type switching networks," J. Syst. Architecture 48, 175-191 (2003).

F. Hwang, W.-D. Lin, "A general construction for nonblocking crosstalk-free photonic switching networks," Networks 42, 20-25 (2003).

C. Yu, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, M. Guo, "Lower-bound on blocking probability of general banyan-based photonic switches with zero first-order switching-element-crosstalk," Proc. Asia-Pacific Conf. Commun. (2005) pp. 314-318.

X. Jiang, M. M. Khander, H. Shen, S. Horiguchi, "Permutation in rearrangeable nonblocking optical mins with zero first-order switching element-crosstalk," Proc. IEEE Workshop High Performance Switching and Routing (2002) pp. 19-23.

P. To, T. Lee, "Generalized non-blocking copy networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (1997) pp. 467-471.

J. Y. Hui, Switching and Traffic Theory for Integrated Broadband Networks (Kluwer, 1990).