Abstract

High-speed photonic switching networks can switch optical signals at the rate of several terabits per second. However, they suffer from an intrinsic crosstalk problem when two optical signals cross at the same switch element. To avoid crosstalk, active connections must be node disjoint in the switching network. In this paper, a sequence of decomposition and merge operations, called conjugate transformation, performed on each switch element to tackle this problem, is proposed. The network resulting from this transformation is called the conjugate network. By using the numbering schemes of networks, the authors prove that if the route assignments in the original network are link disjoint, their corresponding ones in the conjugate network would be node disjoint. Thus, traditional nonblocking switching networks can be transformed into crosstalk-free optical switches in a routine manner. Furthermore, it has been shown that crosstalk-free multicast switches can also be obtained from existing nonblocking multicast switches via the same conjugate transformation.

© 2006 IEEE

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Bell Syst. Tech. (1)

V. Benes, "On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks," Bell Syst. Tech. 41, 1481-1492 (1962).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. C. Opferman, N. T. Tsao-Wu, "On a class of rearrangeable switching networks," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 1579-1618 (1971).

DIMACS Series Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (1)

T. T. Lee, P. P. To, "Non-blocking properties of clos networks," DIMACS Series Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 42, 181-195 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Wide-sense nonblocking banyan-type switching systems based on directional couplers," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1327-1332 (1998).

X. Jiang, P.-H. Ho, S. Horiguchi, "Performance modeling for all-optical photonic switches based on the vertical stacking of banyan network structures," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1620-1631 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (11)

C. T. Lea, "Bipartite graph design principle for photonic switching systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 529-538 (1990).

C. Qiao, "A universal analytic model for photonic banyan networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 1381-1389 (1998).

T.-S. Wong, C.-T. Lea, "Crosstalk reduction through wavelength assignment in wdm photonic switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1280-1287 (2001).

C. T. Lea, "Multi-log2n networks and their applications in high speed electronic and photonic switching systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1740-1749 (1990).

C. Kruskal, M. Snir, "The performance of multistage interconnection networks for multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-32, 1091-1098 (1983).

M. Vaez, C. T. Lea, "Strictly nonblocking directional-coupler-based switching networks under crosstalk constraint," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 316-323 (2000).

C. T. Lea, D. J. Shyy, "Tradeoff of horizontal decomposition versus vertical stacking in rearrangeable nonblocking networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 899-904 (1991).

G. Maier, A. Pattavina, "Design of photonic rearrangeable networks with zero first-order switching-element-crosstalk," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 1268-1279 (2001).

Y. Tscha, K.-H. Lee, "Yet another result on multi-log2n networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1425-1431 (1999).

W. Kabacinski, G. Danilewicz, "Wide-sense and strict-sense nonblocking operation of multicast multi-log2 n switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1025-1036 (2002).

T. T. Lee, S. Y. Liew, "Parallel routing algorithms in benes-clos networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1841-1847 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

D. Nassimi, S. Sahni, "Parallel algorithms to set up the benes permutation network," IEEE Trans. Comput. COM-31, 148-154 (1982).

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. (2)

E. Lu, S. Zheng, "Parallel routing algorithms for nonblocking electronic and photonic switching networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 16, 702-713 (2005).

Y. Yang, J. Wang, "Optimal all-to-all personalized exchange in a class of optical multistage networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 12, 567-582 (2001).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (2)

X. Shen, F. Yang, Y. Pan, "Equivalent permutation capabilities between time-division optical omega networks and non-optical extra-stage omega networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 9, 518-524 (2001).

X. Jiang, H. Shen, Md. M. Khander, S. Horiguchi, "Blocking behaviors of crosstalk-free optical Banyan networks on vertical stacking," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 11, 982-993 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

M. Mehdi Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Space-wavelength tradeoff in the design of nonblocking directional-coupler-based networks under crosstalk constraint," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1373-1379 (1998).

M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Blocking performance with crosstalk consideration of the photonic switching networks based on electrooptical directional couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 381-387 (1999).

C. Qiao, G. Melhem, D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, "A time domain approach for avoiding crosstalk in optical blocking multistage interconnection networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1854-1862 (1994).

V. Chinni, "Crosstalk in a lossy directional coupler switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1530-1535 (1995).

J. Syst. Architecture (1)

Y. Tscha, "Scheduling length for switching element disjoint multicasting in banyan-type switching networks," J. Syst. Architecture 48, 175-191 (2003).

Networks (1)

F. Hwang, W.-D. Lin, "A general construction for nonblocking crosstalk-free photonic switching networks," Networks 42, 20-25 (2003).

Other (4)

C. Yu, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, M. Guo, "Lower-bound on blocking probability of general banyan-based photonic switches with zero first-order switching-element-crosstalk," Proc. Asia-Pacific Conf. Commun. (2005) pp. 314-318.

X. Jiang, M. M. Khander, H. Shen, S. Horiguchi, "Permutation in rearrangeable nonblocking optical mins with zero first-order switching element-crosstalk," Proc. IEEE Workshop High Performance Switching and Routing (2002) pp. 19-23.

P. To, T. Lee, "Generalized non-blocking copy networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (1997) pp. 467-471.

J. Y. Hui, Switching and Traffic Theory for Integrated Broadband Networks (Kluwer, 1990).

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