Abstract

A novel ring-resonator-based integrated photonic chip with ultrafine frequency resolution, providing programmable, stable, and accurate optical-phase control is demonstrated. The ability to manipulate the optical phase of the individual frequency components of a signal is a powerful tool for optical communications, signal processing, and RF photonics applications. As a demonstration of the power of these components, we report their use as programmable spectral-phase encoders (SPEs) and decoders for wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)-compatible optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA). Most important for the application here, the high resolution of these ring-resonator circuits makes possible the independent control of the optical phase of the individual tightly spaced frequency lines of a mode-locked laser (MLL). This unique approach allows us to limit the coded signal's spectral bandwidth, thereby allowing for high spectral efficiency (compared to other OCDMA systems) and compatibility with existing WDM systems with a rapidly reconfigurable set of codes. A four-user OCDMA system using polarization multiplexing is shown to operate at data rates of 2.5 Gb/s within a 40-GHz transparent optical window with a bit error rate (BER) better than 10-9 and a spectral efficiency of 25%.

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Other (59)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King and M. Trakalo, "Very high order microring resonator filters for WDM applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2263-2265, Oct. 2004.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko and Y. Kokubun, "Second-order filter response from parallel coupled glass microring resonators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1426-1428, Nov. 1999.

D. Rafizadeh, J. P. Zhang, S. C. Hagness, A. Taflove, K. A. Stair and S. T. Ho, "Waveguide-coupled AlGaAs/GsAs microcavity ring and disk resonators with high finesse and 21.6 nm free spectral range", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1244-1246, Aug. 1997.

S. Suzuki, K. Oda and Y. Hibino, "Integrated-optic double ring resonators with a wide free spectral range of 100 GHz", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1766-1771, Aug. 1995.

D. V. Tishinin, P. D. Dapkus, A. E. Bond, I. Kim, C. K. Lin and J. O'Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1003-1005, Aug. 1999.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson and P.-T. Ho, "Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 320-322, Mar. 2000.

G. Griffel, "Synthesis of optical filters using ring resonator arrays", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 810-812, Jul. 2000.

G. Griffel, "Vernier effect in asymmetrical ring resonator arrays", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1642-1644, Dec. 2000.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz and P.-T. Ho, "Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 900-905, May 2002.

A. Melloni and M. Martinelli, "Synthesis of direct-coupled resonators bandpass filters for WDM systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 296-303, Feb. 2002.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi and J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 998-1005, Jun. 1997.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 549-551, Apr. 1998.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 215-217, Feb. 1999.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using coupled microring resonators over a cross grid", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 691-693, Jun. 1999.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko and Y. Kokubun, "Cascaded microring resonators for crosstalk reduction and spectrum cleanup in add-drop filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1423-1425, Nov. 1999.

C. K. Madsen, "Subband all-pass filter architectures with applications to dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation and continuously variable delay lines", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2412-2420, Oct. 2003.

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, "Optical all-pass filters for phase response design with applications for dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 994-996, Jul. 1998.

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, P. S. Cho, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis and P.-T. Ho, "Wavelength conversion in GaAs micro-ring resonators", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 554-556, Apr. 2000.

B. E. Little, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, E. P. Ippen and D. Ripin, "Wavelength switching and routing using absorption and resonance", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 816-818, Jun. 1998.

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, "Enhanced all-optical switching by use of nonlinear fiber ring resonator", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 847-849, Jun. 1999.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro and T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber optic local area network using optical processing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 5, pp. 307-314, May 1986.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 478-491, Mar. 1990.

M. E. Marhic, "Coherent optical CDMA networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 854-864, May/Jun. 1993.

M. Kavehrad and D. Zaccarin, "Optical code division multiplexed systems based on spectral encoding of noncoherent sources", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 534-545, Mar. 1995.

R. A. Griffin, D. D. Sampson and D. A. Jackson, "Coherence coding for photonic code division multiple access networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1826-1837, Sep. 1995.

L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading schemes for use in massive optical networks with increased security", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 2636-2647, Dec. 1996.

H. P. Sardesai, C.-C. Chang and A. M. Weiner, "A femtosecond code-division multiple access communication system test bed", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1953-1964, Nov. 1998.

S. Etemad, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, J. Young, T. Banwell, S. Galli, J. Jackel, P. Delfyett, C. Price and T. Turpin, "Spectrally efficient optical CDMA using coherent phase-frequency coding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 929-931, Apr. 2005.

P. Ebrahimi, M. Kargar, M. C. Hauer and A. E. Willner, "A 10 ms tuning MEMS actuated Gires filter for use as a tunable wavelength demultiplexer and a tunable OCDMA encoder/decoder", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper ThQ2, 2004.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S.-D. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer and A. M. Weiner, "Four user 2.5 Gb/s, spectrally coded OCDMA system demonstration using low power nonlinear processing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 143-158, Jan. 2005.

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, C. Langrock, R. V. Roussev and M. M. Fejer, "Low power 4×10 Gb/s O-CDMA system using a double Hadamard code based on spectral phase correlator", presented at the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Rio Grande, PR, Paper TuJ3, 2004.

V. Baby, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, R. Fischer, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Bres, W. C. Kwong, T. H. Curtis and P. R. Prucnal, "Experimental demonstration and scalability analysis of a four-node 102 Gchip/s fast frequency-hopping time spreading optical CDMA network", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 253-255, Jan. 2005.

J. E. McGeehan, S. M. R. Nezam, P. Saghari, T. H. Izadpanah, A. E. Willner, R. Omrani and P. V. Kumar, "3D time-wavelength-polarization OCDMA coding for increasing the number of users in OCDMA LANs", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, 2004,Paper FE5.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo and K. Kitayama, "Highly spectral-efficient optical code division multiplexing transmission system", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 250-258, Mar./Apr. 2004.

N. Wada and K. Kitayama, "A 10 Gb/s optical code division multiplexing using 8-chip optical bipolar code and coherent detection", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1758-1765, Oct. 1999.

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system", IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.

D. Gurkan, S. Kumar, A. Sahin, A. Willner, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, D. Starodubov, J. Bannister, P. Kamath and J. Touch, "All-optical wavelength and time 2-D code converter for dynamically reconfigurable O-CDMA networks using a PPLN waveguide", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper FD6, 2003.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe and J. N. Sweetser, "Demonstration of all-fiber sparse lightwave CDMA based on temporal phase encoding", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1283-1285, Oct. 1999.

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