Abstract

A single-mode waveguide and a 1 × 3 multimode interference (MMI) power splitter are fabricated in hybrid zirconium (Zr)-doped sol-gel material by a microreplication technology with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica. The power splitter, as optimized using a finite-difference beam-propagation method (FD-BPM) simulation with self-imaging effects, represents one of the first experimental demonstrations of a high-tolerance manufactured device using replication methods. The fabrication of the microreplicated power splitter demonstrates high-quality optical and geometrical properties. The local uniformity in thickness of the multimode waveguide is less than 1.0%, and the average surface roughness is about 5.35 nm. The measured splitting loss is less than 0.6 dB for both transverse polarizations at the 1550-nm wavelength. Experimental achievements indicate that the soft lithography technology allows for the performance of applications in integrated optical devices in Zr-doped sol-gel materials with high standards.

© 2006 IEEE

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Other (14)

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis, 1997, pp. 153-177.

N. Yasuda and H. Hosokawa, "Replicated polymer optical waveguides", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Society Optical Engineering, vol. 5246, Orlando, FL, 2003, pp. 103-111.

K.-B. Yoon, C.-G. Choi and S.-P. Han, "Fabrication of multimode polymeric waveguides by hot embossing lithography", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 6A, pp. 3450-3451, 2004.

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht and M. A. M. Gijs, "Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol-gel derived glasses", Microelectron. Eng., vol. 67-68, no. 1, pp. 710-719, Jun. 2003.

S. Obi, M. T. Gale, A. Kuoni and N. De Rooij, "Replication of optical MEMS structures in sol-gel materials", Microelectron. Eng., vol. 73-74, no. 1, pp. 157-160, Jun. 2004.

W.-S. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, B.-S. Bae and Y.-C. Kim, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides by UV embossing and stamping of sol-gel hybrid materials", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1888-1890, Aug. 2004.

W. Yu and X. C. Yuan, "A simple method for fabrication of thick sol-gel microlens as a single-mode fiber coupler", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1410-1412, Oct. 2003.

M. T. Gale, "Replication technology for micro-optics and optical microsystems", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5177, San Diego, CA, 2003, pp. 113-120.

M. He, X. Yuan, J. Bu and W. C. Cheong, "Fabrication of concave refractive microlens arrays in sol-gel glass by a simple proximity-effect-assisted reflow technique", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1007-1009, May 2004.

X. M. Du, T. Touam, L. Degachi, J. L. Guilbault, M. P. Andrews and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel waveguide fabrication parameters: An experimental investigation", Opt. Eng., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1101-1104, Apr. 1998.

H. D. Thiele, C. Gimkiewicz, C. Zschokke, S. Mahmud-Skender, M. S. Westenhoffer and M. T. Gale, "Cost-effective fabrication of waveguides for PLC's by replication in UV-curable sol-gel material", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5451, Strasbourg, France, 2004, pp. 465-474.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615-627, Apr. 1995.

B. R. West and S. Honkanen, "MMI devices with weak guiding designed in three dimensions using a genetic algorithm", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 2716-2722, Jun. 2004.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography", Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 550-575, Dec. 1998.

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