Abstract

Bragg gratings in optical fibers in multimode propagation are investigated theoretically by using the coupled-mode theory and considering two modes coupling. Bragg gratings in multimode fibers (MMFBGs) show multiple reflection peaks due to the coupling between all bounded modes. The reflection spectra depend on the excitation condition of the bounded modes. A numerical method based on the fourth-order Runge-Kutta formula is developed to solve the coupled equations. The reflection spectra of Bragg gratings with sinusoidal and square refractive index modulations were simulated. The asymmetric change of refractive index in the cross section is also considered here. The spectra characteristics and potential applications of these gratings are discussed.

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  1. G. Meltz, W. Morey and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fiber by a transverse holographic method", Opt. Lett., vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 823-825, Aug. 1989.
  2. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 647-651, May 1978.
  3. T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Tilted fiber phase gratings", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 296-313, Feb. 1996.
  4. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.
  5. Y. Zhao and J. C. Palais, "Fiber Bragg grating coherence spectrum modeling, simulation and characteristics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 154-161, Jan. 1997.
  6. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.
  7. E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, "Transmission characteristics of long-period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimuthal/radial refractive index variations", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 218-227, Jan. 2003.
  8. L. B. Soloano and E. C. M. Pennimings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and application", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615-627, Apr. 1995.
  9. J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, H. E. Engan and H. J. Shaw, "Analysis of intermodal coupling in a two-mode fiber with periodic microbends", Opt. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 281-283, Apr. 1987.
  10. K. H. Wanser, K. F. Voss and A. D. Kersey, "Novel fiber devices and sensors based on multimode fiber Bragg gratings", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2360, Glasgow, U.K., 1994, pp. 265-268.
  11. W. Zhao and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber grating sensors in multimode fibers", J. Smart Mater. Struc., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 212-214, 2000.
  12. J. Lim, Q. Yang, B. E. Jones and P. R. Jackson, "Strain and temperature sensors using multimode optical fiber Bragg grating and correlation signal processing", IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 622-627, Aug. 2002.
  13. R. M. Cazo, O. Lisboa, H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, C. L. Barbosa, R. C. Rabelo and J. L. S. Ferreira, "Experimental analysis of reflected modes in a multimode strained grating", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 4-8, Jan. 2001.
  14. T. V. Djambova and T. Mizunami, "Simultaneous sensing of the temperature and displacement using a multimode fiber Bragg grating", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 39, no. 3B, pp. 1566-1570, Mar. 2000.
  15. T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho and S. Gupta, "Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230-235, Feb. 2000.
  16. A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-9, no. 9, pp. 919-933, Sep. 1973.

Other (16)

G. Meltz, W. Morey and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fiber by a transverse holographic method", Opt. Lett., vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 823-825, Aug. 1989.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 647-651, May 1978.

T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Tilted fiber phase gratings", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 296-313, Feb. 1996.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.

Y. Zhao and J. C. Palais, "Fiber Bragg grating coherence spectrum modeling, simulation and characteristics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 154-161, Jan. 1997.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, "Transmission characteristics of long-period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimuthal/radial refractive index variations", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 218-227, Jan. 2003.

L. B. Soloano and E. C. M. Pennimings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and application", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615-627, Apr. 1995.

J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, H. E. Engan and H. J. Shaw, "Analysis of intermodal coupling in a two-mode fiber with periodic microbends", Opt. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 281-283, Apr. 1987.

K. H. Wanser, K. F. Voss and A. D. Kersey, "Novel fiber devices and sensors based on multimode fiber Bragg gratings", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2360, Glasgow, U.K., 1994, pp. 265-268.

W. Zhao and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber grating sensors in multimode fibers", J. Smart Mater. Struc., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 212-214, 2000.

J. Lim, Q. Yang, B. E. Jones and P. R. Jackson, "Strain and temperature sensors using multimode optical fiber Bragg grating and correlation signal processing", IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 622-627, Aug. 2002.

R. M. Cazo, O. Lisboa, H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, C. L. Barbosa, R. C. Rabelo and J. L. S. Ferreira, "Experimental analysis of reflected modes in a multimode strained grating", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 4-8, Jan. 2001.

T. V. Djambova and T. Mizunami, "Simultaneous sensing of the temperature and displacement using a multimode fiber Bragg grating", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 39, no. 3B, pp. 1566-1570, Mar. 2000.

T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho and S. Gupta, "Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230-235, Feb. 2000.

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-9, no. 9, pp. 919-933, Sep. 1973.

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