Abstract

This paper presents a theoretical investigation of femtosecond flat-topped pulse-sequence generation using an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) in a double-passed configuration. We present low-insertion-loss designs using phase-only filters designed using numerical optimization. The designs are also analyzed for robustness to fabrication errors.

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  1. M. K. Smit, "Phasar-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 236-250, Jun. 1996.
  2. R. Adar, C. H. Henry, C. Dragone, R. C. Kistler and M. A. Milbrodt, "Broad-band array multiplexers made with silica wave-guides on silicon", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 212-219, Feb. 1993.
  3. H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N by N multiplexer", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 447-455, Mar. 1995.
  4. K. Okamoto, "Recent progress of integrated optics planar lightwave circuits", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 107-129, Feb. 1999.
  5. Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index contrast silica-based PLC", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1090-1101, Nov./Dec. 2002.
  6. J. Copmany, C. Doerr, K. Okamoto and M. K. Smit, "Special issue on arrayed waveguide grating routers/WDM MUX/DEMUXs and related applications/uses", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1087-1089, Nov/Dec. 2002.
  7. D. E. Leaird, S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, A. Sugita, S. Kamei, M. Ishii and K. Okamoto, "Generation of high repetition rate WDM pulse trains from an arrayed-waveguide grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 221-223, Mar. 2001.
  8. D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, S. Shen, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Sugita and K. Okamoto, "Double-passed arrayed waveguide grating for 500-GHz pulse burst generation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1451-1453, Oct. 2002.
  9. D. E. Leaird, S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, A. Sugita, S. Kamei, M. Ishii and K. Okamoto, "Generation of flat-topped 500-GHz pulse bursts using loss engineered arrayed waveguide gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 816-818, Jun. 2002.
  10. D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Sugita and K. Okamoto, "Continuous 500 GHz pulse train generation by repetition-rate multiplication using arrayed waveguide grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1138-1140, Jul. 2003.
  11. M. C. Parker, S. D. Walker, A. Yiptong and R. J. Mears, "Applications of active arrayed-waveguide gratings in dynamic WDM networking and routing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1749-1756, Dec. 2000.
  12. M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Design of arrayed-waveguide gratings using hybrid Fourier-Fresnel transform techniques", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1379-1384, Sep./Oct. 1999.
  13. V. Balakrishnan and A. Tits, "Numerical optimization-based design," in The Control Handbook, W. Levine, Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1996, ch. 47, pp. 749-758.
  14. "MATLAB Optimization Toolbox", Mathworks, Natick, MA,.
  15. K. Schittkowski, "NLQPL: A Fortran-subroutine solving constrained nonlinear programming problems", Ann. Oper. Res., vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 485-500, Jun. 1985.
  16. S. Boyd and C. Barrat, Linear Controller Design, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.
  17. K. Okamoto, "Tutorial: Fundamentals, technology and applications of AWG's", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Madrid, Spain,Sep. 1998, pp. 35-37.
  18. T. Goh, S. Suzuki and A. Sugita, "Estimation of waveguide phase errors in silica-based waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2107-2113, Nov. 1997.
  19. P. Munoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany and S. Sales, "Analytical and numerical analysis of phase and amplitude errors in the performance of arrayed waveguide gratings", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 494-504, Dec. 2002.
  20. Y. Chu, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, X. Liu and Y. Guo, "The impact of phase errors on arrayed waveguide gratings", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1122-1129, Dec. 2002.

Other (20)

M. K. Smit, "Phasar-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 236-250, Jun. 1996.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, C. Dragone, R. C. Kistler and M. A. Milbrodt, "Broad-band array multiplexers made with silica wave-guides on silicon", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 212-219, Feb. 1993.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba and Y. Inoue, "Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N by N multiplexer", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 447-455, Mar. 1995.

K. Okamoto, "Recent progress of integrated optics planar lightwave circuits", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 107-129, Feb. 1999.

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index contrast silica-based PLC", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1090-1101, Nov./Dec. 2002.

J. Copmany, C. Doerr, K. Okamoto and M. K. Smit, "Special issue on arrayed waveguide grating routers/WDM MUX/DEMUXs and related applications/uses", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1087-1089, Nov/Dec. 2002.

D. E. Leaird, S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, A. Sugita, S. Kamei, M. Ishii and K. Okamoto, "Generation of high repetition rate WDM pulse trains from an arrayed-waveguide grating", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 221-223, Mar. 2001.

D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, S. Shen, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Sugita and K. Okamoto, "Double-passed arrayed waveguide grating for 500-GHz pulse burst generation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1451-1453, Oct. 2002.

D. E. Leaird, S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, A. Sugita, S. Kamei, M. Ishii and K. Okamoto, "Generation of flat-topped 500-GHz pulse bursts using loss engineered arrayed waveguide gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 816-818, Jun. 2002.

D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Sugita and K. Okamoto, "Continuous 500 GHz pulse train generation by repetition-rate multiplication using arrayed waveguide grating", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1138-1140, Jul. 2003.

M. C. Parker, S. D. Walker, A. Yiptong and R. J. Mears, "Applications of active arrayed-waveguide gratings in dynamic WDM networking and routing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1749-1756, Dec. 2000.

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Design of arrayed-waveguide gratings using hybrid Fourier-Fresnel transform techniques", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1379-1384, Sep./Oct. 1999.

V. Balakrishnan and A. Tits, "Numerical optimization-based design," in The Control Handbook, W. Levine, Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1996, ch. 47, pp. 749-758.

"MATLAB Optimization Toolbox", Mathworks, Natick, MA,.

K. Schittkowski, "NLQPL: A Fortran-subroutine solving constrained nonlinear programming problems", Ann. Oper. Res., vol. 5, no. 1-4, pp. 485-500, Jun. 1985.

S. Boyd and C. Barrat, Linear Controller Design, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.

K. Okamoto, "Tutorial: Fundamentals, technology and applications of AWG's", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Madrid, Spain,Sep. 1998, pp. 35-37.

T. Goh, S. Suzuki and A. Sugita, "Estimation of waveguide phase errors in silica-based waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2107-2113, Nov. 1997.

P. Munoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany and S. Sales, "Analytical and numerical analysis of phase and amplitude errors in the performance of arrayed waveguide gratings", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 494-504, Dec. 2002.

Y. Chu, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, X. Liu and Y. Guo, "The impact of phase errors on arrayed waveguide gratings", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1122-1129, Dec. 2002.

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