Abstract

In this paper, polarization rotation due to optical waveguide bending is analytically and numerically investigated. It is shown that the process of polarization conversion in the bend strictly depends on the characteristics of the straight waveguide. The strength of polarization coupling linearly increases with the waveguide refractive index contrast, whereas birefringence is responsible for the phase mismatch that limits the conversion efficiency. Waveguides with refractive index profile symmetrical in the direction orthogonal to the plane of the bend do not exhibit polarization rotation. Inside optical ring resonators, polarization rotation induced by waveguide bending is found to be highly enhanced by the cavity effect, which gives rise to strongly frequency dependent polarization rotation and dramatically alters the ring's spectral response. In the case of single-ring phase shifters, polarization rotation is effectively described by means of an approach based on the theory of poles-zeros loci, which straightforwardly provides conditions for complete polarization conversion, also in the presence of birefringence and losses. The detrimental effects caused by undesired polarization coupling on the spectral response of widespread optical devices based on ring resonators are also discussed. From this point of view, birefringence is demonstrated to be beneficial to make optical components less sensitive to the effects of polarization rotation.

© 2006 IEEE

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  30. M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-11, no. 2, pp. 75-83, Feb. 1975.
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Other (32)

A. Melloni, R. Costa, P. Monguzzi and M. Martinelli, "Ring-resonator filters in silicon oxynitride technology for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 1567-1569, Sep. 2003.

A. Driessen, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, H. Kelderman, E. J. Klein, D. J. W. Klunder, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, F. Susanto Tan, E. Krioukov, C. Otto, H. Gersen, N. F. van Hulst and L. Kuipers, "Microresonators as building blocks for VLSI photonics", in Proc. Int. School Quantum Electronics, Erice, Italy, 2003, pp. 1-18.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, T. Jun-ichi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 232-240, Jan./Feb. 2005.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman and D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 401-412, Jan. 2005.

A. Melloni, "Impact of ring-based filters on signals and on system performance: Numerical modelling and experimental BER measurements", in Proc. Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Wroclaw, Poland, 2004, pp. 299-302.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach, New York: Wiley, 1999.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, "A general planar waveguide autoregressive optical filter", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 437-447, Mar. 1996.

A. Melloni and M. Martinelli, "Synthesis of direct-coupled-resonators bandpass filters for WDM systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 296-303, Feb. 2002.

A. Melloni, "Parallel-coupled ring-resonators filters synthesis", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 917-919, Jun. 2001.

K. Jinguji, "Synthesis of coherent two-port optical delay-line circuit with ring waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1882-1898, Aug. 1996.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 998-1005, Jun. 1997.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seifrth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2263-2265, Oct. 2004.

S. Suzuki, K. Oda and Y. Hibino, "Integrated-optic double ring resonators with a wide free spectral range of 100 GHz", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1766-1771, Aug. 1995.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, "Wavelength selective reflector based on a circular array of coupled microring resonators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1331-1333, May 2004.

K. Oda, N. Takato, H. Toba and K. Nosu, "A wide-band guided-wave periodic multi/demultiplexer with a ring resonator for optical FDM transmission systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-6, no. 6, pp. 1016-1023, Jun. 1988.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar and P.-T. Ho, "All-optical nonlinear switching in GaAs-AlGaAs microring resonators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 74-76, Jan. 2002.

J. E. Heebner, N. N. Lepeshkin, A. Schweinsberg, G. W. Wicks and R. W. Boyd, "Enhanced linear and nonlinear optical phase response of AlGaAs microring resonators", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 769-771, Apr. 2004.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, G. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert and M. K. Smit, "Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra short bents", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1346-1348, Oct. 1996.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa and T. Baba, "Estimation of polarization crosstalk at a micro-bend in Si-photonic wire waveguide", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 520-525, Feb. 2004.

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan and H. A. El-Mikati, "Beam propagation modeling of polarization rotation in deeply etched semiconductor bent waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 681-683, Jul. 2001.

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti and M. Martinelli, "Polarization conversion in ring resonator phase shifters", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 2785-2787, Dec. 2004.

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, G. Cusmai, L. Pacco and M. Martinelli, "Polarization conversion in ring-resonator based optical devices", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble, France, 2005, pp. 650-653.

F. Morichetti, F. Persia and A. Melloni, "Characterization of ring resonators by optical low-coherence interferometry", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (ECIO), Grenoble, France, 2005, pp. 141-144.

E. A. J. Marcatili, "Bends in optical dielectric guides", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 2103-2132, Sep. 1969.

S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman and K. T. V. Grattan, "Full vectorial finite element modeling of novel polarization rotators", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 297-312, Mar./Apr. 2003.

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 401-403, Apr. 2000.

C. Yeung, T. Rozzi and G. Cerri, "Crosspolarization coupling in curved dielectric rib waveguides", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Pt. J, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 281-284, Jun. 1988.

W. W. Lui, T. Hirono and W. P. Huang, "Polarization rotation in semiconductor bending waveguides: A coupled mode theory formulation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 929-936, May 1998.

A. Melloni, F. Carniel, R. Costa and M. Martinelli, "Determination of bend mode characteristic in dielectric waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 571-577, Apr. 2001.

M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-11, no. 2, pp. 75-83, Feb. 1975.

G. Matthaei, L. Young and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.

G. Cusmai, F. Morichetti, P. Rosotti, R. Costa and A. Melloni, "Circuit-oriented modelling of ring-resonators", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, no. 1-3, pp. 343-358, Jan. 2005.

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