Abstract

Nonlinear phase noise (Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise) can limit the transmission distance for phase-shift-keyed modulation formats. In this paper, the compensation of nonlinear phase noise by a midlink optical phase conjugation (OPC) is studied. A proof-of-principle experiment is presented showing an over 4-dB improvement in Q factor when OPC is employed in a differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) system. Also, an ultra long-haul OPC-based differential quadrature phase-shift-keying (DQPSK) transmission experiment is studied to show the impact of self-phase modulation (SPM)-induced impairments, including nonlinear phase noise, in a transmission line. OPC results in a 44% increase in transmission distance when compared to a"conventional"transmission system using dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) for chromatic dispersion compensation.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. M. Daikoku, N. Yoshikane and I. Morita, "Performance comparison of modulation formats for 40 Gb/s DWDM transmission systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OFN2, 2005.
  2. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 115-130, Jan. 2005.
  3. C. Wree, J. Leibrich and W. Rosenkranz, "RZ-DQPSK format with high spectral efficiency and high robustness towards fiber nonlinearities", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 9.6.6, 2002.
  4. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar and C. Dorrer, "Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1-Tb/s (25 × 42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100-km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Th4.4.1, 2004.
  5. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers", Opt. Lett., vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 1351-1353, Dec. 1990.
  6. H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 320-322, Feb. 2003.
  7. J. Hansryd, J. Howe and C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase jitter compensation in DPSK modulated fiber links", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 232-235, Jan. 2005.
  8. P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri and P. Kumar, "SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase noise degraded DPSK signals", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper PDP34, 2005.
  9. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, C. Monsalve, S. Spälter, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe and H. de Waardt, "Reduction of nonlinear phase noise by mid-link spectral inversion in a DPSK based transmission system", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OThO5, 2005.
  10. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, C. Climent Monsalve, S. Spälter, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe and H. de Waardt, "Reduction of Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise by mid-link spectral inversion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 923-925, Apr. 2005.
  11. A. Yariv, D. Fekete and D. M. Pepper, "Compensation for channel dispersion by nonlinear optical phase conjugation", Opt. Lett., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 52-54, Feb. 1979.
  12. S. Y. Set, R. Girardi, B. E. Riccardi, B. E. Olsson, M. Puleo, M. Ibsen, R. I. Laming, P. A. Andrekson, F. Cisternino and H. Geiger, "40 Gb/s field transmission over standard fibre using midspan spectral inversion for dispersion compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 581-582, Apr. 1999.
  13. D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie and C. W. Ford, "40 Gb/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 879-880, May 1997.
  14. U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, E. Dietrich, S. Diez, H. J. Ehrke, D. Razic and H. G. Weber, "40 Gb/s transmission over 434 km standard-fiber using polarisation independent mid-span spectral inversion", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 2044-2045, Oct. 1998.
  15. S. L. Jansen, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, H. E. Escobar, L. Marshall and M. Sher, "16 × 40 Gb/s over 800 km of SSMF using mid-link spectral inversion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1763-1765, Jul. 2004.
  16. S. Watanabe and M. Shirasaki, "Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 243-248, Mar. 1996.
  17. I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaren, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen and S. Kosinski, "Cancellation of all Kerr nonlinearities in long fiber spans using a LiNbO3 phase conjugator and Raman amplification", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Baltimore, MD, 2000,Paper PD33,. pp. 266-268.
  18. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr and S. Chandrasekhar, "Compensation of intra-channel nonlinearities in 40 Gb/s pseudo linear systems using optical phase conjugation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper PDP 32, 2004.
  19. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre and C. R. Doerr, "Optical phase conjugation in a WDM CSRZ pseudo-linear 40 Gb/s system for 4800 km transmission", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Th4.5.6, 2004.
  20. J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa and M. Asobe, "Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tb/s (103 × 10 Gb/s) signals in PPLN waveguide", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144-1145, Jul. 2003.
  21. S. L. Jansen, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, S. Spälter, C.-J. Weiske, A. Schöpflin, S. J. Field, H. E. Escobar and M. H. Sher, "Mixed data rate and format transmission (40 Gb/s NRZ, 40 Gb/s duobinary, 10 Gb/s NRZ) using mid-link spectral inversion", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2348-2350, Oct. 2004.
  22. A. Chowdhury and R.-J. Essiambre, "Optical phase conjugation and pseudolinear transmission", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1105-1107, May 2004.
  23. S. L. Jansen, S. Calabró, B. Spinnler, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe and H. de Waardt, "Nonlinear phase noise reduction in DPSK transmission by optical phase conjugation", in Proc Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Seoul, Korea, 2005,Paper 6B1-3,. pp. 174-175.
  24. M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems, New York: Plenum, 1992.
  25. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and C. Xie, "Reduction of soliton phase jitter by in-line phase conjugation", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 1519-1521, Sep. 2004.
  26. H. Griesser and J. P. Elbers, "Influence of cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise on DQPSK signals from neighbouring OOK channels", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Glasgow, U.K.,Paper Tu1.2.2, 2005.
  27. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima and K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1933-1943, Sep. 2003.
  28. C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev and V. Ivshin, "Transmission of 40 × 42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km UltraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper PD4.4, 2002.
  29. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, C. Climent, M. Serbay, C.-J. Weiske, H. Suche, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, S. Calabró, N. Hecker-Denschlag, P. Leisching, W. Rosenkranz, W. Sohler, G. D. Khoe, T. Koonen and H. de Waardt, "10 200 km 22 × 2 × 10 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK dense WDM transmission without inline dispersion compensation through optical phase conjugation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper PDP28, 2005.
  30. C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama and M. Kawahara, "1.5 µm band efficient broadband wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in a periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 63, no. 26, pp. 3559-3561, Dec. 1993.
  31. M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore and M. M. Fejer, "1.5-µm -band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupling structures", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 1004-1006, Jul. 1998.
  32. D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gb/s link", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 356-362, Mar./Apr. 2004.

Other (32)

M. Daikoku, N. Yoshikane and I. Morita, "Performance comparison of modulation formats for 40 Gb/s DWDM transmission systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OFN2, 2005.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 115-130, Jan. 2005.

C. Wree, J. Leibrich and W. Rosenkranz, "RZ-DQPSK format with high spectral efficiency and high robustness towards fiber nonlinearities", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 9.6.6, 2002.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar and C. Dorrer, "Spectrally efficient (0.8 b/s/Hz) 1-Tb/s (25 × 42.7 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK transmission over 28 100-km SSMF spans with 7 optical add/drops", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Th4.4.1, 2004.

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers", Opt. Lett., vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 1351-1353, Dec. 1990.

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 320-322, Feb. 2003.

J. Hansryd, J. Howe and C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase jitter compensation in DPSK modulated fiber links", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 232-235, Jan. 2005.

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, J. Lasri and P. Kumar, "SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase noise degraded DPSK signals", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper PDP34, 2005.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, C. Monsalve, S. Spälter, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe and H. de Waardt, "Reduction of nonlinear phase noise by mid-link spectral inversion in a DPSK based transmission system", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OThO5, 2005.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, C. Climent Monsalve, S. Spälter, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe and H. de Waardt, "Reduction of Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise by mid-link spectral inversion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 923-925, Apr. 2005.

A. Yariv, D. Fekete and D. M. Pepper, "Compensation for channel dispersion by nonlinear optical phase conjugation", Opt. Lett., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 52-54, Feb. 1979.

S. Y. Set, R. Girardi, B. E. Riccardi, B. E. Olsson, M. Puleo, M. Ibsen, R. I. Laming, P. A. Andrekson, F. Cisternino and H. Geiger, "40 Gb/s field transmission over standard fibre using midspan spectral inversion for dispersion compensation", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 581-582, Apr. 1999.

D. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, M. Brierley, A. D. Ellis, D. G. Moodie and C. W. Ford, "40 Gb/s transmission over 406 km of NDSF using mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave-mixing in a 2 mm long semiconductor optical amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 879-880, May 1997.

U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, E. Dietrich, S. Diez, H. J. Ehrke, D. Razic and H. G. Weber, "40 Gb/s transmission over 434 km standard-fiber using polarisation independent mid-span spectral inversion", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 2044-2045, Oct. 1998.

S. L. Jansen, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, H. E. Escobar, L. Marshall and M. Sher, "16 × 40 Gb/s over 800 km of SSMF using mid-link spectral inversion", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1763-1765, Jul. 2004.

S. Watanabe and M. Shirasaki, "Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 243-248, Mar. 1996.

I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, K. Rottwitt, W. Burkett, G. Raybon, J. B. Stark, K. Parameswaren, M. H. Chou, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, R. Harel, D. L. Philen and S. Kosinski, "Cancellation of all Kerr nonlinearities in long fiber spans using a LiNbO3 phase conjugator and Raman amplification", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Baltimore, MD, 2000,Paper PD33,. pp. 266-268.

A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr and S. Chandrasekhar, "Compensation of intra-channel nonlinearities in 40 Gb/s pseudo linear systems using optical phase conjugation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper PDP 32, 2004.

A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre and C. R. Doerr, "Optical phase conjugation in a WDM CSRZ pseudo-linear 40 Gb/s system for 4800 km transmission", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Th4.5.6, 2004.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa and M. Asobe, "Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tb/s (103 × 10 Gb/s) signals in PPLN waveguide", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144-1145, Jul. 2003.

S. L. Jansen, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, S. Spälter, C.-J. Weiske, A. Schöpflin, S. J. Field, H. E. Escobar and M. H. Sher, "Mixed data rate and format transmission (40 Gb/s NRZ, 40 Gb/s duobinary, 10 Gb/s NRZ) using mid-link spectral inversion", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2348-2350, Oct. 2004.

A. Chowdhury and R.-J. Essiambre, "Optical phase conjugation and pseudolinear transmission", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1105-1107, May 2004.

S. L. Jansen, S. Calabró, B. Spinnler, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe and H. de Waardt, "Nonlinear phase noise reduction in DPSK transmission by optical phase conjugation", in Proc Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Seoul, Korea, 2005,Paper 6B1-3,. pp. 174-175.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban and K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems, New York: Plenum, 1992.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and C. Xie, "Reduction of soliton phase jitter by in-line phase conjugation", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 1519-1521, Sep. 2004.

H. Griesser and J. P. Elbers, "Influence of cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise on DQPSK signals from neighbouring OOK channels", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Glasgow, U.K.,Paper Tu1.2.2, 2005.

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima and K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1933-1943, Sep. 2003.

C. Rasmussen, S. Dey, F. Liu, J. Bennike, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, M. Kimmitt, K. Springer, D. Gapontsev and V. Ivshin, "Transmission of 40 × 42.7 Gb/s over 5200 km UltraWave fiber with terrestrial 100 km spans using turn-key ETDM transmitter and receiver", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper PD4.4, 2002.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, C. Climent, M. Serbay, C.-J. Weiske, H. Suche, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, S. Calabró, N. Hecker-Denschlag, P. Leisching, W. Rosenkranz, W. Sohler, G. D. Khoe, T. Koonen and H. de Waardt, "10 200 km 22 × 2 × 10 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK dense WDM transmission without inline dispersion compensation through optical phase conjugation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper PDP28, 2005.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama and M. Kawahara, "1.5 µm band efficient broadband wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in a periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 63, no. 26, pp. 3559-3561, Dec. 1993.

M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore and M. M. Fejer, "1.5-µm -band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupling structures", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 1004-1006, Jul. 1998.

D. Caccioli, A. Paoletti, A. Schiffini, A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, G. Lorenzetto, P. Minzioni, S. Cascelli, M. Guglielmucci, L. Lattanzi, F. Matera, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, V. Quiring, W. Sohler, H. Suche, S. Vehovc and M. Vidmar, "Field demonstration of in-line all-optical wavelength conversion in a WDM dispersion managed 40-Gb/s link", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 356-362, Mar./Apr. 2004.

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