Abstract

Waveguides and passive integrated optics elements constructed from thin metal films of finite width embedded in a homogeneous background dielectric and propagating long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LRSPPs) have been characterized experimentally at free-space optical wavelengths near 1550 nm. Straight and curved waveguides, s-bends, four-port couplers, y-junctions, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers have been carefully characterized. Additionally, rigorous models based on modal decomposition have been proposed for all of these elements and validated via comparisons with the measurements. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is observed for all structures over all measurement wavelengths. It is hoped that this work will help further establish this new integrated optics technology, taking it beyond demonstrators.

© 2006 IEEE

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  25. J. Lu, "Modelling optical waveguide bends and application to plasmon-polariton waveguides", M.S. thesis, Faculty Eng., Univ. Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2003.
  26. A. B. Buckman, Guided-Wave Photonics, Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992.
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  28. E. D. Palik, Ed. "Electronic Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (HOC)", SciVision-Academic, Lexington, MA, 1999.
  29. M. L. Theye, "Investigation of the optical properties of Au by means of thin semitransparent films", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 3060-3078, Oct. 1970.
  30. C. Reale, "Optical constants of vacuum deposited thin metal films in the near infrared", Infrared Phys., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 175-181, 1970.
  31. P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 98, no. 4, p. 043109, Aug. 2005.
  32. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Other

P. Berini, "Plasmon polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 61, no. 15, pp. 10484-10503, Apr. 2000.

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 63, no. 12, p. 125417, Mar. 2001.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 5186-5201, Apr. 1986.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 5855-5872, Sep. 1991.

G. I. Stegeman, R. F. Wallis and A. A. Maradudin, "Excitation of surface polaritons by end-fire coupling", Opt. Lett., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 386-388, Jul. 1983.

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 844-846, Jun. 2000.

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Long-range plasmon-polariton wave propagation in thin metal films of finite-width excited using an end-fire technique", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4087, Quebec City, Canada, 2000, pp. 534-540.

R. Charbonneau, "Demonstration of a passive integrated optics technology based on plasmons", M.S. thesis, Faculty Eng., Univ. Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2001.

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi and P. Berini, "Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 977-984, Feb. 2005.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi and P. Berini, "Demonstration of Bragg gratings based on long-ranging surface plasmon-polariton waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 4674-4682, Jun. 2005.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 668-670, Feb. 2003.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 24, pp. 5833-5836, Dec. 2004.

T. Nicolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons", Opt. Commun., vol. 244, no. 1-6, pp. 455-459, Jan. 2005.

A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Søndergaard, T. Nicolajsen and K. Leosson, "Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4237-4243, May 2005.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 413-422, Jan. 2005.

S. J. Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires-Fundamental modes", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 325-329, Mar. 2004.

J. R. Krenn and J.-C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon polaritons in metal stripes and wires", Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A, vol. 362, no. 1817, pp. 739-756, Apr. 2004.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon sub-wavelength optics", Nature, vol. 424, no. 6950, pp. 824-830, Aug. 2003.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 2590-2593, Mar. 1999.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides", Nat. Mater., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 229-232, Apr. 2003.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 98, no. 1, p. 011101, Jul. 2005.

R. Pregla and W. Pascher, "The method of lines," in Numerical Techniques for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Passive Structures, T. Itoh, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1989.

I. G. Breukelaar, "Surface plasmon-polaritons in thin metal strips and slabs: Waveguiding and mode cutoff", M.S. thesis, Faculty Eng., Univ. Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2004.

R. Pregla, "The method of lines for the analysis of dielectric waveguide bends", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 634-638, Apr. 1996.

J. Lu, "Modelling optical waveguide bends and application to plasmon-polariton waveguides", M.S. thesis, Faculty Eng., Univ. Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2003.

A. B. Buckman, Guided-Wave Photonics, Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992.

R. E. Walpole and R. H. Myers, Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists, 5th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1993.

E. D. Palik, Ed. "Electronic Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (HOC)", SciVision-Academic, Lexington, MA, 1999.

M. L. Theye, "Investigation of the optical properties of Au by means of thin semitransparent films", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 3060-3078, Oct. 1970.

C. Reale, "Optical constants of vacuum deposited thin metal films in the near infrared", Infrared Phys., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 175-181, 1970.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 98, no. 4, p. 043109, Aug. 2005.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

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