Abstract

Stimulated Brillouin scattering (BS) in optical fibers is investigated for the generation of millimeter waves (mm-waves) for radio over fiber systems. Predictions of a numerical simulation are compared to experimental results, and both are in good agreement with each other. With the numerical simulation, the optimum parameter for the technique is calculated. It will be shown that the optimum length of the fiber for BS depends on the signal rather than on the pump power. This gives us the opportunity to adjust the parameters for any given fiber length. The advantages and limits of the proposed method for mm-wave generation are discussed.

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  2. K. Ohata, K. Maruhashi, M. Ito, S. Kishimoto, K. Ikuina, T. Hashiguchi, N. Takahashi and S. Iwanaga, "Wireless 1.25 Gb/s transceiver module at 60 GHz band", in Tech. Dig. Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, 2002, pp. 298-299.
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  4. E. E. Narimanov and P. Mitra, "The channel capacity of a fiber optics communication system: Perturbation theory", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 530-537, Mar. 2002.
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  6. S. Weisser, E. C. Larkins, K. Czotscher, W. Benz, J. Daleiden, I. Esquivias, J. Leissner, J. D. Ralston, B. Romero, R. E. Sah, A. Shonfelder and J. Rosenzweig, "Damping-limited modulation bandwidths up to 40 GHz in undoped short-cavity In0:35 Ga0:65 As-GaAs multiple quantum well lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 608-610, May 1996.
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  8. W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, H. R. Fetterman, D. H. Chang, H. Erlig and B. Tsap, "Recent advances in low voltage, high frequency polymer electro-optic modulators", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Tech. Dig., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. MJ1-1-MJ1-3.
  9. K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi and H. Miyazawa, "Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 615-619, Apr. 1998.
  10. G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-20, no. 10, pp. 1208-1216, Oct. 1984.
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  14. X. S. Yao, "High-quality microwave signal generation by use of Brillouin scattering in optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1329-1331, Sep. 1997.
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  16. R. T. Ramos and A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase-lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 82-83, Jan. 1992.
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  20. R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, A. Mars, J. G. Wasserbauer and J. E. Bowers, "Millimeter-wave signal generation using semiconductor diode lasers", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 1-5, pp. 1-5, 1993.
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  23. K. I. Kitayama, "Highly stabilized millimeter wave generation by using fiber-optic frequency-tunable comb generator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 883-893, May 1997.
  24. S. Fukushima, C. F. C. Silva, Y. Muramoto and A. J. Seeds, "Optoelectronic millimeter wave synthesis using an optical comb generator, optically injection locked lasers and a unitravelling-carrier photodiode", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3043-3051, Dec. 2003.
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  27. R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Fibre Brillouin amplifiers", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 21, pp. S105-S112, 1989.
  28. N. A. Olsson and J. P. van der Ziel, "Characterization of a semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 1, pp. 147-153, 1987.
  29. M. F. Ferreira, J. F. Rocha and J. L. Pinto, "Analysis of the gain and noise characteristics of fibre Brillouin amplifiers", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 35-44, 1994.
  30. J. O'Reilly and P. Lane, "Remote delivery of video services using mm-waves and optics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 369-375, Feb. 1994.
  31. L. Goldberg, R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, "Generation and control of microwave signals by optical techniques", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-J., vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 268-294, 1992.
  32. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering", Appl. Opt., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2489-2494, Dec. 1972.
  33. A. Yeniay, J. M. Delavaux and J. Toulouse, "Spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering gain spectra in optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1425-1432, Aug. 2002.
  34. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 50-57, Jan. 1996.
  35. M. Niklés, L. Thévenaz and P. Robert, "Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842-1851, Oct. 1997.
  36. J. W. Shi and C. K. Sun, "Theory and design of a tapered line distributed photodetector", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1942-1950, Nov. 2002.
  37. T. Tanemura, Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, "Narrowband optical filter, with a variable transmission spectrum, using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1552-1554, Sep. 2002.
  38. G. A. Sefler and K. Kitayama, "Frequency comb generation by four-wave mixing and the role of fiber dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1596-1604, Sep. 1998.
  39. R. R. Alfano,Ed. The Supercontinuum Laser Source, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
  40. J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, C. Jørgensen and T. Veng, "All-fiber octave spanning supercontinuum", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 643-645, Apr. 2003.
  41. Y. Shen, X. Zhang and K. Chen, "Optical single sideband modulation of 11-GHz RoF system using stimulated Brillouin scattering", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1277-1279, Jun. 2005.

Other (41)

A. Hirata, M. Harada and T. Nagatsuma, "120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation and emission of millimeter-wave signals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2145-2153, Oct. 2003.

K. Ohata, K. Maruhashi, M. Ito, S. Kishimoto, K. Ikuina, T. Hashiguchi, N. Takahashi and S. Iwanaga, "Wireless 1.25 Gb/s transceiver module at 60 GHz band", in Tech. Dig. Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, 2002, pp. 298-299.

P. P. Mitra and J. B. Stark, "Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications", Nature, vol. 411, no. 6841, pp. 1027-1030, Jun. 2001.

E. E. Narimanov and P. Mitra, "The channel capacity of a fiber optics communication system: Perturbation theory", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 530-537, Mar. 2002.

P. A. Morton, T. Tanbaun-Ek, R. A. Logan, N. Chand, K. W. Wecht, A. M. Sergent and P. F. Sciortino Jr., "Packaged 1.55 mm DFB laser with 25 GHz modulation bandwidth", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 2044-2046, Nov. 1994.

S. Weisser, E. C. Larkins, K. Czotscher, W. Benz, J. Daleiden, I. Esquivias, J. Leissner, J. D. Ralston, B. Romero, R. E. Sah, A. Shonfelder and J. Rosenzweig, "Damping-limited modulation bandwidths up to 40 GHz in undoped short-cavity In0:35 Ga0:65 As-GaAs multiple quantum well lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 608-610, May 1996.

L. A. Johansson and A. J. Seeds, "Generation and transmission of millimeter-wave data-modulated optical signals using an optical injection phase-lock loop", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 511-520, Feb. 2003.

W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, H. R. Fetterman, D. H. Chang, H. Erlig and B. Tsap, "Recent advances in low voltage, high frequency polymer electro-optic modulators", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Tech. Dig., Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. MJ1-1-MJ1-3.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi and H. Miyazawa, "Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 615-619, Apr. 1998.

G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-20, no. 10, pp. 1208-1216, Oct. 1984.

H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama, "Cancellation of the signal fading for 60 GHz subcarrier multiplexed optical DSB signal transmission in nondispersion shifted fiber using midway optical phase conjugation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2488-2497, Dec. 1999.

J. J. OReilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann and R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimeter wave signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 2024-2025, Dec. 1992.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak and Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber wireless systems incorporating external modulators", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1410-1415, Aug. 1997.

X. S. Yao, "High-quality microwave signal generation by use of Brillouin scattering in optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1329-1331, Sep. 1997.

Z. F. Fan, P. J. S. Heim and M. Dagenais, "Highly coherent RF signal generation by optical phase locking of external cavity semiconductor lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 719-721, May 1998.

R. T. Ramos and A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase-lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 82-83, Jan. 1992.

D. Wake, C. R. Lima and P. A. Davies, "Optical generation of millimeter-wave signals for fiber-radio systems using a dual-mode DFB semiconductor laser", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 2270-2276, Sep. 1995.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor and J. F. Weller, "Microwave signal generation with injection-locked laser diodes", Electron. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 491-493, Jun. 1983.

R.-P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde and F. Schmidt, "Low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation at 64 GHz and data transmission using optical sideband injection locking", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 728-730, May 1998.

R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, A. Mars, J. G. Wasserbauer and J. E. Bowers, "Millimeter-wave signal generation using semiconductor diode lasers", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 1-5, pp. 1-5, 1993.

D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, R. B. Waterhouse and R. S. Tucker, "Signal generation using pulsed semiconductor lasers for application in millimeter-wave wireless links", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 2257-2262, Sep. 1995.

D. Novak and R.S. Tucker, "Novel technique for millimeter-wave signal generation using pulsed semiconductor lasers", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 1430-1431, Aug. 1994.

K. I. Kitayama, "Highly stabilized millimeter wave generation by using fiber-optic frequency-tunable comb generator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 883-893, May 1997.

S. Fukushima, C. F. C. Silva, Y. Muramoto and A. J. Seeds, "Optoelectronic millimeter wave synthesis using an optical comb generator, optically injection locked lasers and a unitravelling-carrier photodiode", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3043-3051, Dec. 2003.

T. Schneider, M. Junker and D. Hannover, "Generation of millimeter wave signals by stimulated Brillouin scattering for radio over fibre systems", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 23, pp. 1500-1502, Nov. 2004.

T. Schneider, Nonlinear Optics in Telecommunications, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004.

R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Fibre Brillouin amplifiers", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 21, pp. S105-S112, 1989.

N. A. Olsson and J. P. van der Ziel, "Characterization of a semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 1, pp. 147-153, 1987.

M. F. Ferreira, J. F. Rocha and J. L. Pinto, "Analysis of the gain and noise characteristics of fibre Brillouin amplifiers", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 35-44, 1994.

J. O'Reilly and P. Lane, "Remote delivery of video services using mm-waves and optics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 369-375, Feb. 1994.

L. Goldberg, R. D. Esman and K. J. Williams, "Generation and control of microwave signals by optical techniques", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-J., vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 268-294, 1992.

R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering", Appl. Opt., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2489-2494, Dec. 1972.

A. Yeniay, J. M. Delavaux and J. Toulouse, "Spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering gain spectra in optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1425-1432, Aug. 2002.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi and M. Tateda, "SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 50-57, Jan. 1996.

M. Niklés, L. Thévenaz and P. Robert, "Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842-1851, Oct. 1997.

J. W. Shi and C. K. Sun, "Theory and design of a tapered line distributed photodetector", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1942-1950, Nov. 2002.

T. Tanemura, Y. Takushima and K. Kikuchi, "Narrowband optical filter, with a variable transmission spectrum, using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1552-1554, Sep. 2002.

G. A. Sefler and K. Kitayama, "Frequency comb generation by four-wave mixing and the role of fiber dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1596-1604, Sep. 1998.

R. R. Alfano,Ed. The Supercontinuum Laser Source, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, C. Jørgensen and T. Veng, "All-fiber octave spanning supercontinuum", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 643-645, Apr. 2003.

Y. Shen, X. Zhang and K. Chen, "Optical single sideband modulation of 11-GHz RoF system using stimulated Brillouin scattering", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1277-1279, Jun. 2005.

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