Abstract

The physical layer scalability of a packet-switched optical interconnection network utilizing semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) switch elements is investigated experimentally and with numerical modeling. Optical packets containing payloads of multiple wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) channels are propagated through cascaded SOA-based switching nodes in a recirculating test-bed environment. Experiments show that bit-error rates (BERs) below 10-9 can be maintained through 58 switching nodes for the entire eight-channel 10-Gb/s-per-channel payload distributed over 24.2 nm of the C-band. When the packet payload consists of a single 10-Gb/s channel, 98 node hops can be traversed before a BER of 10-9 is exceeded. In conjunction with the experiments, a novel phenomenological modeling technique is developed in order to forecast the scalability of SOA-based WDM packet interconnection networks. This technique is shown to yield results that correlate well with the experimental data. These investigations are presented as predictors of the physical limitations of large-scale WDM packet-switched networks.

© 2006 IEEE

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  36. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, W. Lu, B. A. Small and K. Bergman, "Physical layer scalability demonstration of a WDM packet interconnection network", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), San Juan, PR, 2004, pp. 567-568.
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  38. J. Zhou, J. Chrostowski and P. Myslinski, "Measurements of very low bit-error rates of optical switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1131-1133, Aug. 1997.
  39. E. Almstrom, G. P. Larsen, L. Gillner, W. H. Van Berlo, M. Gustavsson and E. Berglind, "Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 996-1004, Jun. 1996.
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Other

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1998.

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papzoglou and A. S. Pomportsis, "Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques and architectures", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 384-405, Feb. 2003.

R. S. Tucker and W. D. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E82-C, no. 2, pp. 202-212, Feb. 1999.

J. Trezza, H. Hamster, J. Iamartino, H. Begheri and C. DeCusatis, "Parallel optical interconnects for enterprise class server clusters: Needs and technology solutions", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. S36-S42, Feb. 2003.

Q. Yang and K. Bergman, "Performances of the data vortex switch architecture under nonuniform and bursty traffic", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1242-1247, Aug. 2002.

J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka and M. Zirngibl, "Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839-2850, Nov. 2003.

S. Banerjee and D. Sarkar, "Hypercube connected rings: A fault-tolerant and scalable architecture for virtual lightwave network topology", in Proc. Information Communications (INFOCOM), Toronto, ON, Canada, 1994, pp. 1236-1243.

M. Y. Jeon, Z. Pan, J. Cao, C. Jing, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Wang, V. Akella, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, J. Pan and S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of all-optical packet switching routers with optical label swapping and 2R regeneration for scalable optical label switching network applications", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2723-2726, Nov. 2003.

D. J. Blumenthal, B.-E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Mašanoviæ, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren and J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2058-2074, Dec. 2000.

B. Meagher, G.-K. Chang, G. Ellinas, Y. M. Lin, W. Xin, T. F. Chen, X. Yang, A. Chowdhury, J. Young, S. J. Yoo, C. Lee, M. Z. Iqbal, T. Robe, H. Dai, Y. J. Chen and W. I. Way, "Design and implementation of ultra-low latency optical label switching for packet-switched WDM networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1978-1987, Dec. 2000.

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.

R. Hemenway, R. R. Grzybowski, C. Minkenberg and R. Luijten, "Optical-packet-switched interconnect for supercomputer applications", J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 900-913, Nov. 2004.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Solé-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1026-1040, Sep. 2003.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O'Mahony, L. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty and I. H. White, "WASPNET: A wavelength switched packet network", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120-129, Mar. 1999.

I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic and A. E. Kelly, "Semiconductor optical amplifiers: Performance and applications in optical packet switching", J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 882-897, Nov. 2004.

M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, London: U.K.: Kluwer, 2002.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2002.

L. H. Spiekman, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, G. N. van den Hoven, T. van Dongen, M. J. H. Sander-Jochem and J. J. M. Binsma, "8 × 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission over 240 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1082-1084, Aug. 2000.

S. Baruh, M. R. X. de Barros, M. de L. Rocha, M. R. Horiuchi, J. B. Rosolem, R. Arradi, S. M. Rossi, A. Paradisi, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi and M. A. G. Martinez, "Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation of an optical recirculating loop operating at 10 Gb/s", in Proc. SBMO/IEEE MTT-S Int., Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, 2003, pp. 239-243.

Y. Sun, I. T. Lima, H. Jiao, J. Wen, H. Xu, H. Ereifej, G. M. Carter and C. R. Menyuk, "Study of system performance in a 107-km dispersion-managed recirculating loop due to polarization effect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 966-968, Sep. 2001.

A. Tzanakaki and M. J. O'Mahony, "Analysis of tunable wavelength converters based on cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers operating in the counter propagating mode", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 49-55, Feb. 2000.

Z. Li, Y. Dong, J. Mo, Y. Wang and C. Lu, "1050-km WDM transmission of 8 × 10.709 Gb/s DPSK signal using cascaded in-line semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1760-1762, Jul. 2004.

J. Yu and P. Jeppesen, "Improvement of cascaded semiconductor optical amplifier gates by using holding light injection", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 614-623, May 2001.

K. Bergman and G. Hughes, (2004, Dec.). Optical interconnection networks. "J. Opt. Netw.", [Online], 3 ( 12), pp. 760-836.

M. Listanti, V. Eramo and R. Sabella, "Architectural and technological issues for future optical Internet networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 82-92, Sep. 2000.

D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia and I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2081-2094, Dec. 1998.

H. J. S. Dorren, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, A. Srivatsa, F. M. Huijskens and H. de Waardt, "Optical packet switching and buffering by using all-optical signal processing methods", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 2-12, Jan. 2003.

C. Reed, "Multiple level minimum logic network", U.S. Patent 5 996 020, Nov. <day>30</day>, 1999.

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, G. D. Hughes and F. G. Johnson, "WDM packet routing for high-capacity data networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1420-1426, Oct. 2001.

B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, J. P. Mack and K. Bergman, "Demonstration of a complete 12-port terabit capacity optical packet switching fabric", in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2005,Paper OWK1.

B. A. Small, A. Shacham, K. Bergman, K. Athikulwongse, C. Hawkins and D. S. Wills, "Emulation of realistic network traffic patterns on an eight-node data vortex interconnection network subsystem", J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 802-809, Nov. 2004.

W. Lu, B. A. Small, J. P. Mack, L. Leng and K. Bergman, "Optical packet routing and virtual buffering in an eight-node data vortex switching fabric", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1981-1983, Aug. 2004.

L. Gillner, E. Goobar, L. Thylen and M. Gustavsson, "Semiconductor laser amplifier optimization: An analytical and experimental study", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1822-1827, Aug. 1989.

F. T. Arecchi and R. Bonifacio, "Theory of optical maser amplifiers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-1, no. 4, pp. 169-178, Jul. 1965.

B. A. Small, J. N. Kutz, W. Lu and K. Bergman, "Modeling, simulating and characterizing the performance of data vortex switching nodes", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Tucson, AZ, 2003, pp. 53-54.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, W. Lu, B. A. Small and K. Bergman, "Physical layer scalability demonstration of a WDM packet interconnection network", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), San Juan, PR, 2004, pp. 567-568.

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1071-1082, Jul. 1989.

J. Zhou, J. Chrostowski and P. Myslinski, "Measurements of very low bit-error rates of optical switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1131-1133, Aug. 1997.

E. Almstrom, G. P. Larsen, L. Gillner, W. H. Van Berlo, M. Gustavsson and E. Berglind, "Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4 × 4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 996-1004, Jun. 1996.

W. Lu, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, B. A. Small and K. Bergman, "Cascading switching nodes in data vortex optical packet interconnection network", Electron. Lett, vol. 40, no. 14, pp. 895-896, Jul. 2004.

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