Abstract

This paper describes the theory of a microfiber loop resonator (MLR) and experimentally demonstrates a high quality factor MLR in free space. The MLR is fabricated from the \sim1-µm diameter waist of a biconical fiber taper using the CO2 laser indirect heating technique. The high coupling efficiency of an MLR is achieved through an adiabatically slow variation of the microfiber diameter in the coupling region. An MLR-loaded Q-factor of 120 000 and an intrinsic Q-factor of 630 000 were demonstrated. As an application, the performance of an MLR as an ultrafast direct contact temperature sensor is also demonstrated. The MLR heating/cooling relaxation time was measured to be \sim3 µs, in good agreement with the developed theory.

© 2006 IEEE

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Other (30)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding", Nature, vol. 426, no. 6968, pp. 816-819, Dec. 2003.

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi and D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 2258-2263, May 2004.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 2864-2869, Jun. 2004.

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities", Nature, vol. 424, no. 6950, pp. 839-846, Aug. 2003.

M. Sumetsky, "Optical fiber microcoil resonator", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 2303-2316, May 2004.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko and A. Hale, "Fabrication and study of bent and coiled free silica nanowires: Self-coupling microloop optical interferometer", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 3521-3531, Jul. 2004.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini and A. Hale, "Optical microfiber loop resonator", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, Apr. 2005.

B. E. Little, "A VLSI photonics platform", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, 2003,Paper ThD1,. pp. 444-445.

M. Sumetsky, "Uniform coil optical resonator and waveguide: Transmission spectrum, eigenmodes and dispersion relation", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4331-4340, May 2005.

L. F. Stokes, M. Chodorow and H. J. Shaw, "All-single-mode fiber resonator", Opt. Lett., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 230-288, Jun. 1982.

C. Caspar and E.-J. Bachus, "Fibre-optics micro-ring-resonator with 2 mm diameter", Electron. Lett., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1506-1508, Oct. 1989.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Demonstration of a microfiber loop optical resonator", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper PDP10, 2005.

C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, "Optical all-pass filters for phase response design with applications for dispersion compensation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 994-996, Jul. 1998.

G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang and A. Yariv, "Free-standing all-polymer microring resonator optical filter", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 23, pp. 1650-1651, Nov. 2003.

O. Schwelb, "Transmission, group delay and dispersion in single-ring optical resonators and add/drop filters-A tutorial overview", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1380-1394, May 2004.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, London: U.K.: Chapman & Hall, 1983.

R. B. Smith, "Analytic solution for linearly tapered directional couplers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 882-892, Sep. 1976.

K. Morishita and T. Yamaguchi, "Wavelength tunability and polarization characteristics of twisted polarization beamsplitting single-mode fiber couplers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 732-738, May 2001.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, New York: Pergamon, 1977.

C. K. Madsen, S. Chandrasekhar, E. J. Laskowski, M. A. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, A. Griffin, R. Long, M. Rasras, A. Wong-Foy, L. W. Stulz, J. Weld and Y. Low, "An integrated tunable chromatic dispersion compensator for 40 Gb/s NRZ and CSRZ", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FD9-1-FD9-3.

G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, B. Bellman and E. Guiot, "Ultralow loss ring resonators using 3.5% index-contrast Ge-doped silica waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 709-711, May 2003.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2263-2265, Oct. 2004.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel and H. Kurz, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 2861-2863, Dec. 2004.

B. E. Little, T. Chu and H. A. Haus, "Second-order filtering and sensing with partially coupled traveling waves in a single resonator", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 1570-1572, Oct. 1998.

E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve and C. Otto, "Integrated optical microcavities for enhanced evanescent-wave spectroscopy", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1504-1506, Sep. 2002.

S. Ashkenazi, C.-Y. Chao, L. J. Guo and M. O'Donnell, "Ultrasound detection using polymer microring optical resonator", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 22, pp. 5418-5420, Nov. 2004.

J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer and C. N. Pannel, "Heat transfer modeling in CO2 laser processing of optical fibres", Opt. Commun., vol. 152, no. 4-6, pp. 324-328, Jul. 1998.

A. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Zhao and R. G. May, "Self-calibrated interferometric-Intensity-based optical fiber sensors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1495-1501, Oct. 2001.

L. Tong, J. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. He, X. Chen, L. Liu and E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices", Nano Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 259-262, Feb. 2005.

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