Abstract

This paper investigated the impact of receiver dispersion slope compensation for 40-Gb/s transoceanic transmission over conventional nonzero dispersion shifted fibers. Various differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation formats were experimentally compared at 42.8 Gb/s [to account for forwarded error correction (FEC) overhead] with dispersion slope compensators at the receiver. These transmission measurements were performed in a circulating loop over a transatlantic distance of 6250 km using a variety of channel spacings, relative polarizations, and synchronous modulation techniques. All formats benefited from receiver dispersion slope compensation. For orthogonally polarized channels on 133-GHz spacing, the return-to-zero DPSK (RZ-DPSK) format performed the best; all channels (18 × 40 Gb/s) propagated with > 13.5-dB Q-factor and with > 4-dB FEC margin. Whereas for copolarized channels on 100-GHz spacing, carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ)-DPSK performed the best; all channels (25 × 40 Gb/s) propagated with > 3-dB FEC margin. Moreover, it was shown that parallel launch only suffered a penalty of \sim 0.2 and \sim 0.5 dB relative to the orthogonal launch for 133-and 100-GHz channel spacing, respectively. Finally, it was demonstrated that copolarized 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK worked as well as 10 Gb/s RZ-ON-OFF keying (RZ-OOK) for the same spectral efficiency (30%) over the 6250 km of conventional nonzero dispersion shifted fibers (NZ-DSF) originally designed for 10 Gb/s transmission.

© 2006 IEEE

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  3. J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero and N. S. Bergano, "Transmission of 40 Gb/s WDM signals over 6250 km of conventional NZ-DSF with > 4 dB FEC margin", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Post-deadline Paper PDP26, Mar. 2005.
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  8. B. Bakhshi, M. Manna, G. Mohs, D. I. Kovsh, R. L. Lynch, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, W. T. Anderson, P. Corbett, S. Jiang, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, A. Lucero and S. M. Abbott, "First dispersion-flattened transpacific undersea system: From design to terabit/s field trial", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 233-241, Jan. 2004.
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  14. J.-X. Cai, M. Nissov, C. R. Davidson and A. N. Pilipetskii, "Measurement techniques for high-speed WDM experiments", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper ThW1,. pp. 575-577.
  15. Q. Yu, L.-S. Yan, S. Lee, Y. Xie and A. E. Willner, "Loop-synchronous polarization scrambling technique for simulating polarization effects using re-circulating fiber loops", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1593-1600, Jul. 2003.
  16. D. Kovsh, E. A. Golovchenko and A. N. Pilipetskii, "Enhancement in performance of long-haul DWDM systems via optimization of the transmission format", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002,Paper WX2,. pp. 361-362.
  17. Y. Zhu and A. Hadjifotiou, "Nonlinear tolerance improvement through a modified-CSRZ-DPSK modulation format", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper We2.4.6, Sep. 2004.
  18. S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, T. Sugihara, T. Hashimoto, K. Matsuoka, T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, "Tunable dispersion slope compensator with a chirped fiber grating for 160 Gb/s RZ transmission", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper TuD4,. pp. 165-166.
  19. Y. W. Song, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, C. Yu, Y. Wang, D. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. E. Rothenberg, J. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Li, R. Caldwell, R. Wilcox and A. E. Willner, "Tunable dispersion slope compensation for 40 Gb/s WDM systems using broadband non-channelized third-order chirped fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2259-2266, Dec. 2002.
  20. D. Kovsh, L. Liu, B. Bakhshi, A. N. Pilipetskii, E. A. Golovchenko and N. S. Bergano, "Reducing inter-channel crosstalk in long-haul DWDM systems", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 597-602, May/Jun. 2002.
  21. C. R. Davidson, L. Liu, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, P. C. Corbett, H. Zhang, Y. Cai, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization tracking receiver demonstration over transoceanic distance", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper TuF3,. pp. 179-180.

Other (21)

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), San Francisco, CA, Nov. 1999,Paper TuM3,. pp. 226-227.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 × 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002, pp. FC2-1-FC2-3.

J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, H. Li, W. Anderson, Y. Cai, L. Liu, A. N. Pilipetskii, D. G. Foursa, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero and N. S. Bergano, "Transmission of 40 Gb/s WDM signals over 6250 km of conventional NZ-DSF with > 4 dB FEC margin", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Post-deadline Paper PDP26, Mar. 2005.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. vanderWagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin and P. Reeves-Hall, "DWDM 40G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman-amplified 100-km ultrawave fiber spans", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 203-207, Jan. 2004.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim and R. L. Lingle, "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 208-214, Jan. 2004.

I. Morita and N. Edagawa, "50 GHz-spaced 64 × 42.7 Gb/s transmission over 8200 km using pre-filtered CS-RZ DPSK signal and EDFA repeaters", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy,Post-deadline Paper Th4.3.1, Sep. 2003.

G. Charlet, E. Corbe, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, W. Idler, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge and S. Bigo, "WDM transmission at 6 Tb/s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7 Gb/s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Post-deadline Paper PDP36, Feb. 2004.

B. Bakhshi, M. Manna, G. Mohs, D. I. Kovsh, R. L. Lynch, M. Vaa, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, W. T. Anderson, P. Corbett, S. Jiang, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, A. Lucero and S. M. Abbott, "First dispersion-flattened transpacific undersea system: From design to terabit/s field trial", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 233-241, Jan. 2004.

T. Merker, P. Meissner and U. Feiste, "High bit-rate OTDM transmission over standard fiber using mid-span spectral inversion and its limitation", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 258-262, Mar./Apr. 2000.

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, J. Berger, E. Hilliger, M. Kroh, T. Yamamoto, C. M. Weinert and H. G. Weber, "Enabling transmission at 160 Gb/s", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002,Paper TuA1,. pp. 1-2.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, S. Dupont, P. Plantady, J. F. Marcerou, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, W. Idler and G. Charlet, "42 × 42.7 Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over a 4820 km long-NZDSF deployed line using C-band-only EDFAs", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Post-deadline Paper PDP37, Feb. 2004.

E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, F. I. Khatri, R. M. Kimball and V. J. Mazurczyk, "Modeling of transoceanic fiber-optic WDM communication systems", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 337-347, Mar./Apr. 2000.

J.-X. Cai, M. Nissov, C. R. Davidson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, H. Li, Y. Cai, E. A. Golovchenko, A. J. Lucero, D. G. Foursa and N. S. Bergano, "Long-haul 40 Gb/s DWDM transmission with aggregate capacities exceeding 1 Tb/s", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2247-2258, Dec. 2002.

J.-X. Cai, M. Nissov, C. R. Davidson and A. N. Pilipetskii, "Measurement techniques for high-speed WDM experiments", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper ThW1,. pp. 575-577.

Q. Yu, L.-S. Yan, S. Lee, Y. Xie and A. E. Willner, "Loop-synchronous polarization scrambling technique for simulating polarization effects using re-circulating fiber loops", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1593-1600, Jul. 2003.

D. Kovsh, E. A. Golovchenko and A. N. Pilipetskii, "Enhancement in performance of long-haul DWDM systems via optimization of the transmission format", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2002,Paper WX2,. pp. 361-362.

Y. Zhu and A. Hadjifotiou, "Nonlinear tolerance improvement through a modified-CSRZ-DPSK modulation format", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper We2.4.6, Sep. 2004.

S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, T. Sugihara, T. Hashimoto, K. Matsuoka, T. Miyazaki and F. Kubota, "Tunable dispersion slope compensator with a chirped fiber grating for 160 Gb/s RZ transmission", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper TuD4,. pp. 165-166.

Y. W. Song, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, C. Yu, Y. Wang, D. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. E. Rothenberg, J. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Li, R. Caldwell, R. Wilcox and A. E. Willner, "Tunable dispersion slope compensation for 40 Gb/s WDM systems using broadband non-channelized third-order chirped fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2259-2266, Dec. 2002.

D. Kovsh, L. Liu, B. Bakhshi, A. N. Pilipetskii, E. A. Golovchenko and N. S. Bergano, "Reducing inter-channel crosstalk in long-haul DWDM systems", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 597-602, May/Jun. 2002.

C. R. Davidson, L. Liu, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, P. C. Corbett, H. Zhang, Y. Cai, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization tracking receiver demonstration over transoceanic distance", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 2003,Paper TuF3,. pp. 179-180.

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