Abstract

The noise figure (NF) properties of an undepleted and lossless dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifier (FOPA) are theoretically and numerically investigated. The theoretical study takes into account the noise characteristics of the two pump waves that are considered to have parallel polarization states for gain maximization. It is shown that noisy pump waves degrade the amplifier's NF, especially when the amplifier is operating at high gain values and when the input signal is high. The theoretical observations are validated by Monte Carlo numerical simulations, and the agreement between them is excellent. Finally, a comparative study concerning the noise characteristics of dual-pump and single-pump FOPAs is performed.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506-520, May-Jun. 2002.
  2. S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, "Two-pump fiber parametric amplifiers", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 7-23, Jan. 2003.
  3. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 194-196, Mar. 2001.
  4. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, A. R. Chraplyvy, G. Raybon, J. C. Centanni, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Continuous-wave parametric gain synthesis using nondegenerate pump four-wave mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1406-1408, Oct. 2002.
  5. K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1451-1453, Dec. 1994.
  6. S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar and J. C. Centanni, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed transmission over standard single-mode fiber using polarization-insensitive signal conjugation in highly-nonlinear optical fiber", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, paper PD12, 2003.
  7. K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1016-1017, Jun. 2000.
  8. E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave mixing in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 849-851, Jul. 2000.
  9. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.
  10. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Wavelength tunable 40 GHz pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 584-585, Apr. 2001.
  11. J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "O-TDM demultiplexer with 40 dB gain based on a fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 732-734, Jul. 2001.
  12. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber based parametric amplification", in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., vol. 4, Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. PD31-1-PD31-3.
  13. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Multi-band bit-level switching in two-pump fiber parametric devices", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 852-854, Mar. 2004.
  14. P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 409-416, Feb. 2004.
  15. P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "NF characterisation of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy,We 2.3.5, Sep. 2003.
  16. J. L. Blows and S. E. French, "Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 491-493, Apr. 2002.
  17. K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1916-1920, Nov. 1994.
  18. K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka and L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization-independent one-pump fiber-optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1506-1508, Nov. 2002.
  19. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 538-547, May-Jun. 2002.
  20. M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang and L. G. Kazovsky, "Widely tunable spectrum translation and wavelength exchange by four-wave mixing in optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 1906-1908, Dec. 1996.
  21. R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1062-1072, Jul. 1982.
  22. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995.
  23. P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, "Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for chi(3) parametric amplifiers", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 445-447, Mar. 2004.
  24. R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan and P. Kumar, "Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: Experimental investigation", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2372-2374, Oct. 2004.
  25. P. L. Voss, R. Y. Tang and P. Kumar, "Measurement of photon statistics and the NF of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 549-551, Apr. 2003.
  26. E. Berlind and L. Gillner, "Optical quantum noise treated with classical electrical network theory", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 846-853, Mar. 1994.
  27. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and M. G. Raymer, "Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 5037-5066, 2004.
  28. D. Marcuse, "Single-channel operation in very long nonlinear fibers with optical amplifiers at zero dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 353-361, Mar. 1991.
  29. M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie and G. P. Agrawal, "Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers", Phys. Rev. E, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1072-1080, 1995.
  30. A. Mussot, A. D. Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1289-1291, May 2004.

Other (30)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Lie and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 506-520, May-Jun. 2002.

S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, "Two-pump fiber parametric amplifiers", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 7-23, Jan. 2003.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 194-196, Mar. 2001.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, A. R. Chraplyvy, G. Raybon, J. C. Centanni, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Continuous-wave parametric gain synthesis using nondegenerate pump four-wave mixing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1406-1408, Oct. 2002.

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1451-1453, Dec. 1994.

S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar and J. C. Centanni, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed transmission over standard single-mode fiber using polarization-insensitive signal conjugation in highly-nonlinear optical fiber", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, paper PD12, 2003.

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1016-1017, Jun. 2000.

E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave mixing in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 849-851, Jul. 2000.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "Wavelength tunable 40 GHz pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 584-585, Apr. 2001.

J. Hansryd and P. A. Andrekson, "O-TDM demultiplexer with 40 dB gain based on a fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 732-734, Jul. 2001.

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber based parametric amplification", in Optical Fiber Communications Conf., vol. 4, Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. PD31-1-PD31-3.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Multi-band bit-level switching in two-pump fiber parametric devices", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 852-854, Mar. 2004.

P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 409-416, Feb. 2004.

P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "NF characterisation of fiber optical parametric amplifiers", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy,We 2.3.5, Sep. 2003.

J. L. Blows and S. E. French, "Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 491-493, Apr. 2002.

K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1916-1920, Nov. 1994.

K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka and L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization-independent one-pump fiber-optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1506-1508, Nov. 2002.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 538-547, May-Jun. 2002.

M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang and L. G. Kazovsky, "Widely tunable spectrum translation and wavelength exchange by four-wave mixing in optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 1906-1908, Dec. 1996.

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1062-1072, Jul. 1982.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995.

P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, "Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for chi(3) parametric amplifiers", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 445-447, Mar. 2004.

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan and P. Kumar, "Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: Experimental investigation", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2372-2374, Oct. 2004.

P. L. Voss, R. Y. Tang and P. Kumar, "Measurement of photon statistics and the NF of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 549-551, Apr. 2003.

E. Berlind and L. Gillner, "Optical quantum noise treated with classical electrical network theory", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 846-853, Mar. 1994.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic and M. G. Raymer, "Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 5037-5066, 2004.

D. Marcuse, "Single-channel operation in very long nonlinear fibers with optical amplifiers at zero dispersion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 353-361, Mar. 1991.

M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie and G. P. Agrawal, "Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers", Phys. Rev. E, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1072-1080, 1995.

A. Mussot, A. D. Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1289-1291, May 2004.

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