Abstract

Improvement of transmission performance of phase-shift-keying signals by the use of ultrafast optical limiters (amplitude regenerators) based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in fibers is theoretically and numerically studied. Theoretical analysis focuses on the nonlinear phase noise (the Gordon-Mollenauer effect) and its reduction by the limiters. It is shown that the cubic growth of the phase variance as the distance extends can be suppressed by the limiters that are periodically inserted in the system, although some additional phase noise is introduced by them. Numerical simulation is performed for nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) transmission in a quasi-linear highly dispersed-pulse system with and without limiters. The results show that the maximum transmission distance is extended by the limiters. A clear indication of nonlinear phase-noise reduction at the high-signal-power regime, however, is not seen. This is attributed to the existence of intrachannel-FWM-induced phase fluctuation, which cannot be effectively suppressed by the amplitude limiter.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. T. Miyano, M. Fukutoku, K. Hattori and H. Ono, "Suppression of degradation induced by SPM/XPM + GVD in WDM transmission using a bit-synchronous intensity modulated DPSK signal", presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Chiba, Japan,paper 14D3-3, 2000.
  2. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agrawal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 × 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FC2-1-FC2-3.
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  19. P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grygoryan, J. Lasri and P. Kumar, "SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase noise degraded DPSK signals", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, paper PDP34, 2005.
  20. M. Matsumoto, "In-line signal regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals using four-wave mixing in a fiber", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications Topical Meeting (OAA), San Francisco, CA, paper OTuC2, 2004.
  21. K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1016-1017, 2000.
  22. A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1289-1291, May 2004.
  23. E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave-mixing in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 849-851, Jul. 2000.
  24. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.
  25. K. Schuh, B. Junginger, E. Lach, A. Klekamp and E. Schlag, "85.4 Gbit/s ETDM receiver with full rate electronic clock recovery circuit", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden, 2004,paper Th4.1.1,. pp. 2-3.
  26. Y. Yu, R. Lewon, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, U. Eriksson and T. W. Lee, "80 Gb/s ETDM transmitter with a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, paper OWE1, 2005.
  27. C. Xu and X. Liu, "Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift keying transmission", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 1619-1621, 2002.
  28. X. Wei and X. Liu, "Analysis of intrachannel four-wave mixing in differential phase-shift keying transmission with large dispersion", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 23, pp. 2300-2302, 2003.

Other (28)

T. Miyano, M. Fukutoku, K. Hattori and H. Ono, "Suppression of degradation induced by SPM/XPM + GVD in WDM transmission using a bit-synchronous intensity modulated DPSK signal", presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), Chiba, Japan,paper 14D3-3, 2000.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agrawal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 × 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FC2-1-FC2-3.

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers", Opt. Lett., vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 1351-1353, 1990.

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 320-322, Feb. 2003.

K. P. Ho, "Performance degradation of phase-modulated systems due to nonlinear phase noise", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1213-1215, Sep. 2003.

A. Mecozzi, "Probability density functions of the nonlinear phase noise", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 673-675, 2004.

M. E. Marhic, C. H. Hsia and J.-M. Jeong, "Optical amplification in a nonlinear fibre interferometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 210-211, 1991.

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, "Amplitude noise suppression using a high gain phase sensitive amplifier as a limiting amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 677-679, 1996.

K. Croussore, C. Kim and G. Li, "All-optical regeneration of differential phase-shift keying signals based on phase-sensitive amplification", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2357-2359, 2004.

X. Liu, X. Wei, R. E. Slusher and C. J. McKinstrie, "Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by use of lumped nonlinear phase-shift compensation", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 1616-1618, 2002.

C. J. MaKinstrie, S. Radic and C. Xie, "Reduction of soliton phase jitter by in-line phase conjugation", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 1519-1521, 2003.

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon and K. Kikuchi, "Cancellation of nonlinear phase noise in DPSK transmission", presented at the Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. and Int. Conf. Optical Internet (OECC/COIN), Yokohama, Japan,paper 14C3-3, 2004.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, C. C. Monsalve, S. Spalter and P. M. Krummrich, "Reduction of phase noise by mid-link spectral inversion in a DPSK based transmission system", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, paper OThO5, 2005.

M. Hanna, H. Porte, J.-P. Goedgebuer and W. T. Rhodes, "Soliton optical phase control by use of in-line filters", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 732-734, 1999.

S. A. Derevyanko and S. K. Turitsyn, "Reduction of the phase jitter in differential phase-shift-keying soliton transmission systems by in-line Butterworth filters", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 35-37, 2004.

D. Boivin, M. Hanna, P.-A. Lacourt and J.-P. Goedgebuer, "Reduction of phase jitter in dispersion-managed systems by in-line filtering", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 688-690, 2004.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 639-641, Mar. 2005.

M. Matsumoto, "Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1055-1057, 2005.

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grygoryan, J. Lasri and P. Kumar, "SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase noise degraded DPSK signals", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, paper PDP34, 2005.

M. Matsumoto, "In-line signal regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals using four-wave mixing in a fiber", presented at the Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications Topical Meeting (OAA), San Francisco, CA, paper OTuC2, 2004.

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1016-1017, 2000.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1289-1291, May 2004.

E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave-mixing in optical fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 849-851, Jul. 2000.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni and A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 957-959, Jul. 2003.

K. Schuh, B. Junginger, E. Lach, A. Klekamp and E. Schlag, "85.4 Gbit/s ETDM receiver with full rate electronic clock recovery circuit", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden, 2004,paper Th4.1.1,. pp. 2-3.

Y. Yu, R. Lewon, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, U. Eriksson and T. W. Lee, "80 Gb/s ETDM transmitter with a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, paper OWE1, 2005.

C. Xu and X. Liu, "Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift keying transmission", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 1619-1621, 2002.

X. Wei and X. Liu, "Analysis of intrachannel four-wave mixing in differential phase-shift keying transmission with large dispersion", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 23, pp. 2300-2302, 2003.

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