Abstract

We have investigated the wavelength conversion techniques for differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation formats in 10 Gb/s transmission systems, compared with the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. For the wavelength conversion of DPSK modulation formats, we employed the wavelength converters based on the four-wave mixing (FWM) in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and the frequency comb generated by phase modulation. The power penalty at 10-9 bit error rate was used as a measure of the system performance degraded by the wavelength conversion. Our simulation results show that the DPSK modulation formats have a smaller power penalty than the NRZ modulation format for the wavelength conversion using the FWM effect in an SOA due to a much lower pattern effect. However, as the wavelength conversion uses the frequency comb generated by phase modulation, it has a similar power penalty compared with the NRZ modulation format. It is also shown that the DPSK modulation formats are possible to obtain the power penalty less than 0.4 dB for both wavelength conversion techniques.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. C. Xu, X. Liu, L. F. Mollenauer and X. Wei, "Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 617-619, Apr. 2003.
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Other (18)

C. Xu, X. Liu, L. F. Mollenauer and X. Wei, "Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 617-619, Apr. 2003.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, B. Glance, J. S. Perino and A. H. Gnauck, "Wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1300-1303, Nov. 1993.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen and K. E. Stubklaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifier", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 942-954, Jun. 1996.

L. Lu, Y. Dong, H. Wang, W. Cai and S. Xie, "Bit-error-rate performance dependence on pump and signal powers of the wavelength converter based on FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 855-857, Jul. 2000.

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson and J. Toulouse, "All-optical wavelength conversion based on pure optical phase modulation", in Tech. Dig., Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), vol. 1, Los Angeles, CA, 2004, pp. 23-27.

A. Uskov, J. Mork and J. Mark, "Wave mixing in semiconductor laser amplifiers due to carrier heating and spectral-hole burning", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1769-1781, Aug. 1994.

M. G. Davis and R. F. O'Dowd, "A transfer matrix method based large-signal dynamic model for multielectrode DFB lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 2458-2466, Nov. 1994.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov and K. Petermann, "Four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers for frequency conversion and fast optical switching", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1131-1145, Oct. 1997.

A. D'Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall'Ara, J. Eckner and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and noise performance of wavelength converters based on FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 357-359, Apr. 1997.

J. W. D. Chi, A. Shore and J. Le Bihan, "Highly nondegenerate four-wave mixing in uniform and lambda/4 -shifted DFB lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2011-2019, Nov. 1997.

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers, New York: Van Nostrand, 1993.

R. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise, Dordrecht: Germany: Kluwer, 1988.

A. E. Willner and W. Shieh, "Optimal spectral and power parameters for all-optical wavelength shifting: Single stage, fanout and cascadability", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 771-781, May 1995.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, Tokyo: Japan: Holt-Saunders, 1985.

H. Kim and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1887-1891, Sep. 2003.

Y. K. Park and S. W. Granlund, "Optical preamplifier receivers: Application to long-haul digital transmission", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 59-71, 1994.

R. A. A. Lima, M. C. R. Carvalho and L. F. M. Conrado, "On the simulation of digital optical links with EDFA's: An accurate method for estimating BER through Gaussian approximation", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1037-1044, Aug. 1997.

L. Lu, Y. Dong, H. Wang, W. Cai and S. Xie, "Bit-error-rate performance dependence on pump and signal powers of the wavelength converter based on FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 855-857, Jul. 2000.

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