Abstract

Using high-intensity (110-200 GW/cm2) 250-fs 211-nm laser pulses and a point-by-point technique, the efficiency of long-period grating inscription in H2-loaded standard telecom Corning SMF-28 and H2-free photosensitive B-codoped Fibercore fibers was studied and compared with those at other existing recording methods (low-intensity 157-nm, 193-nm, 248-nm or high-intensity 264-nm fabrications). It was shown that at high-intensity 211-nm laser inscription, two-quantum photoreactions are responsible for long-period fiber grating (LPFG) formation, which results in a significant photosensitivity enhancement in comparison with conventional low-intensity 248-nm exposure (by 45 times for SMF-28 fiber). It was found that the grating strength in the case of SMF-28 fiber, irradiated with high-intensity 211-nm pulses, reaches 28 dB, which is the highest value among all known photochemical approaches. The thermal studies of the recorded gratings were also conducted.

© 2005 IEEE

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Other (36)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. R49-R61, May 2003.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 669-694, May 1996.

V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, R. O. Claus and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 648-650, May 1997.

B.-O. Guan, H.-Y. Tam, H. L. W. Chan, C.-L. Choy and M. S. Demokan, "Growth characteristics of long-period gratings in hydrogen-loaded fibre during and after 193 nm UV inscription", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 818-823, Jul. 2001.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam and J. Zhang, "Rapid long-period grating formation in hydrogen-loaded fibre with 157 nm F2 -laser radiation", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 24, pp. 2000-2001, May 2000.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, J. Zhang and R. Tam, "Fabrication of strong long-period gratings in hydrogen-free fibers with 157-nm F2 -laser radiation", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 771-773, Jun. 2001.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 646-648, May 1999.

F. Hindle, E. Fertein, C. Przygodzki, F. Dürr, L. Paccou, R. Bocquet, P. Niay, H. G. Limberger and M. Douay, "Inscription of long-period gratings in pure silica and germano-silicate fiber cores by femtosecond laser irradiation", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1861-1863, Aug. 2004.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko and P. G. Kryukov, "Long-period fibre grating formation with 264 nm femtosecond radiation", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 269-271, Mar. 2002.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. A. Zagorulko and P. G. Kryukov, "Inscription of long-period fibre gratings by femtosecond UV radiation", Proc. SPIE, vol. 4876, pp. 313-320, Mar. 2003.

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Two-quantum UV photochemistry of nucleic acids: Comparison with conventional low-intensity UV photochemistry and radiation chemistry", Int. J. Radiat. Biol., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 233-299, Feb. 1990.

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, D. N. Nikogosyan and P. G. Kazansky, "Two-photon absorption properties of commercial fused silica and germanosilicate glass at 264 nm", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1114-1116, Feb. 2002.

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan and G. Brambilla, "Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: Comparison with other existing methods of fabrication", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 354-361, Feb. 2005.

J. Nishii, N. Kitamura, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono and H. Kawazoe, "Ultraviolet-radiation-induced chemical reactions through one-and two-photon absorption processes in GeO2- SiO2 glasses", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1184-1186, May 1995.

A. I. Kalachev, V. Pureur and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Investigation of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser pulses", Opt. Commun., vol. 246, no. 1-3, pp. 107-115, Feb. 2005.

"Twinkle, Highly Integrated Pico/Femtosecond CPA Nd:Glass Laser System",

D. N. Nikogosyan, Nonlinear Optical Crystals: A Complete Survey, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2005, p. 10.

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, A. Varanaviius, G. Valiulis and R. Danielius, "Generation of femtosecond radiation at 211 nm by femtosecond pulse upconversion in the field of a picosecond pulse", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 1116-1118, Aug. 2000.

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, A. Varanaviius, G. Valiulis and R. Danielius, "Highly-efficient subpicosecond pulse generation at 211 nm", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 48-52, Jan. 2000.

S. A. Slattery and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Two-photon absorption at 211 nm in fused silica, crystalline quartz and some alkali halides", Opt. Commun., vol. 228, no. 1-3, pp. 127-131, Dec. 2003.

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Femtosecond measurements of two-photon absorption coefficients at \lambda = 264\ nm in glasses, crystals and liquids", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 21, pp. 4365-4376, Jul. 2002.

M. N. Ng and K. S. Chiang, "Thermal effects on the transmission spectra of long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Commun., vol. 208, no. 4-6, pp. 321-327, Jul. 2002.

M. I. Braiwish, B. L. Bachim and T. K. Gaylord, "Prototype CO2 laser-induced long-period fiber grating variable optical attenuators and optical tunable filters", Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1789-1793, Mar. 2004.

G. Humbert and A. Malki, "Characterizations at very high temperature of electric arc-induced long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Commun., vol. 208, no. 4-6, pp. 329-335, Jul. 2002.

S. H. Num, C. Zhan, J. Lee, C. Hahn, K. Reichard, P. Ruffin, K.-L. Deng and S. Yin, "Bend-insensitive ultra short long-period gratings by the electric arc method and their applications to harsh environment sensing and communication", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 731-737, Feb. 2005.

P. Guenot, "Material aspects of standard transmission optical fibers", MRS Bull., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 360-364, May 2003.

D. N. Nikogosyan, Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials-A Handbook, Chichester: U.K.: Wiley, 1997, p. 174.

I. P. Kaminow, B. G. Bagley and C. G. Olson, "Measurements of the absorption edge in fused silica", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 98-99, Jan. 1978.

D. N. Nikogosyan, Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials-A Handbook, Chichester: U.K.: Wiley, 1997, p. 177.

M. J. Weber, Ed. Handbook of Optical Materials, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2003, p. 238.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre perform cores: Support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity", Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 385-387, Feb. 1993.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein and C. Przygodzki, "Tomographic measurement of femtosecond-laser induced stress changes in optical fibers", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 24, pp. 4983-4985, Jun. 2004.

M. Dubov, I. Bennion, S. A. Slattery and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Strong long-period fiber gratings recorded at 352 nm", Opt. Lett.,,

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "High-temperature sensitivity of long-period gratings in B-Ge codoped fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 818-820, Aug. 2001.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding mode resonances in short and long period fiber gratings filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.

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