Abstract

General filter architecture using co-and counterpropagation signals are studied. A specific configuration based on a Sagnac loop within a ring resonator is analyzed. Novel tuning, apart from conventional tuning,is achieved by changing the coupling ratio of a coupler through the adjustment of the equivalent loop length. Full equations describing the filter behavior in passive and active configurations, and simple closed-form formulas to compute the tuning, tolerance, and full-width at half-maximum are reported. The performance of these devices is discussed for their application as selective or channel-dropping ultra-narrow-band filters. The effect of losses and their dispersion properties are also discussed. These devices can be conveniently implemented, using silicon-or InP-integrated optic technology, for they have high free spectral ranges.

© 2005 IEEE

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Other (38)

G. Rossi, O. Jerphagnon, B. Olsson and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical SCM data extraction using a fiber-loop mirror for WDM network systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 897-899, Jul. 2000.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen and R. E. Slusher, "Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1390-1402, Aug. 1998.

D. Sadot and E. Boimovich, "Tunable optical filters for dense WDM networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 50-55, Dec. 1998.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis, A Signal Processing Approach, New York: Wiley, 1999.

O. Schwelb, "Transmission, group delay and dispersion in single-ring optical resonators and add/drop filters-a tutorial overview", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1380-1394, May 2004.

N. Ngo and L. N. Binh, "Novel realization of monotonic butterworth-type lowpasss, highpass and bandpass optical filters using phase-modulated fiber-optic interferometers and ring resonators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 827-840, May 1994.

C. Vázquez, S. Vargas and J. M. S. Pena, "Design and tolerance analysis of a router using an amplified ring resonator and Bragg gratings", Appl. Opt. , vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1934-1940, 2000.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz and P.-T. Ho, "Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 900-905, May 2002.

S. A. Havstad, B. Fischer, A. E. Willner and M. G. Wickham, "Loop-mirror filters based on saturable-gain or -absorber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1466 -1468, 1999.

J. E. Heebner, P. Chak, S. Pereira, J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Distributed and localized feedback in microresonator sequences for linear and nonlinear optics", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., B, Opt. Phys., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1818-1832, 2004 .

B. E. Little, et al. "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2263-2265, Oct. 2004.

C. Vázquez, F. Hernández-Gil and M. López-Amo, "Tunable ring resonator filter for OFDM transmission systems", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 321-323, Apr. 1995.

R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner, "Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor", Appl. Opt., vol. 40, no. 31, pp. 5742-5747, 2001.

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, "Enhanced all-optical switching by use of a nonlinear fiber ring resonator", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 847-849, 1999.

P. Urquhart, "Compound optical-fiber-based resonators", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 803-812, 1988.

J. Zhang and J. W. Y. Lit, "Compound fiber ring resonator: theory", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1867-1873, 1994 .

J. Zhang and J. W. Y. Lit, "All fiber compound ring resonator with a ring filter", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1256-1262, Dec. 1994.

O. Schwelb and I. Frigyes, "All-optical tunable filters built with discontinuity-assisted ring resonators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 384-386, Mar. 2001.

S. Vargas, C. Vázquez and J. M. S. Pena, "Wide tunable filters using a recirculating delay line with multi-reflections", Opt. Eng., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 926-927, 2002.

S. Vargas, C. Vázquez and J. M. S. Pena, "Novel tunable optical filter employing a fiber loop mirror for synthesis applications in WDM", in 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, CA, vol. II, 2001, pp. 899-900.

C. Vázquez, S. Vargas, J. M. S. Pena and P. Corredera, "Tunable optical filters using compound ring resonators for DWDM", IEEE Photon. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1085-1087, Aug. 2003.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, F. Xia, C. Li and S. R. Forrest, "Nonreciprocity of counterpropagating signals in a monolithically integrated Sagnac interferometer", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 513-515, 2004.

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz and H. Heidrich, "High-Q channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1442-1444, Oct. 2002.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong and S. R. Forrest, "Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1343-1345, May 2004.

K. Oda, S. Suzuki, H. Takahashi and H. Toba, "An optical FDM distribution experiment using a high finesse waveguide-type double ring resonator", IEEE Photon. Technol. , vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1031-1034, Aug. 1994.

D. G. Rabus and M. Hamacher, "MMI-coupled ring resonators in GaInAsP-InP", IEEE Photon. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 812-814, Aug. 2001.

A. Melloni, R. Costa, P. Monguzzi and M. Martinelli, "Ring-resonator filters in silicon oxynitride technology for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems", Opt. Lett. , vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 1567-1569, 2003.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip", Nature, vol. 421, no. 6926, pp. 925-928, 2003.

K. Djordjev, S. Choi, S. Chou and P. Dapkus, "Microdisk tunable resonant filters and switches", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 828 -830, Jun. 2002.

B. E. Little, et al. "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2263-2265, Oct. 2004.

K. Djordjev, S. Choi, S. Chou and P. Dapkus, "Vertically coupled InP microdisk switching devices with electroabsorptive active regions", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1115-1117, Aug. 2002.

M. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, "A MEMS-actuated tunable microdisk resonator", in IEEE Int. Conf. Optical Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) , Waikoloa, HI, 2003, pp. 28- 29.

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv and M. A. Scherer, "Control of optical waveguide-resonator coupling: Application to low-power optical modulation and switching", in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annu. Meeting Conf. Proc., Tucson, AZ, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 130-131.

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer and A. Yariv, "Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder racetrack resonator for thermooptic switching and coupling control", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1651-1659, 2005.

R. H. Qu, H. Zhao, Z. J. Fang, E. Marin and J. P. Meunier, "Configurable wavelength-selective switch based on fiber grating and fiber loop mirror", IEEE Photon. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1343-1345, Oct. 2000.

X. Shu, S. Jiang and D. Huang, "Fiber grating Sagnac loop and its multiwavelegth-laser", IEEE Photon. Technol., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 980-982, Aug. 2000.

I. Golub and E. Simova, "Ring resonator in a Sagnac interferometer as a birefringence magnifier", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 87-89, 2005.

J. D. Downie and A. B. Ruffin, "Analysis of signal distortion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1876-1886, Sep. 2003.

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