Abstract

This paper proposes a novel technique for automatic waveguide formation by means of the self-trapping effect of optical fiber irradiation into a photopolymerizing resin. We investigate experimentally the phenomenon of thin cladding layer formation surrounding the core following the core creation. In the proposed technique, a counterdiffusion effect involving polymerizing monomers via the core/cladding interface causes enrichment of a low refractive index monomer, and a resultant"W-shaped"refractive index profile is realized. The measured propagation loss of the fabricated waveguide is 1.7 dB/cm at 0.68 µm wavelength. This technology is appropriate for the fabrication of large-core optical waveguides of greater than 0.5 mm in diameter and is useful for automating the optical fiber connection and packaging process by virtue of being an all-passive optically induced process.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. S. J. Frisken, "Light-induced optical waveguide uptapers", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1035-1037, Jul. 1993.
  2. A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, "Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 24-26, Jan. 1996.
  3. T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke and L. Poladian, "Self-writing a waveguide in glass using photosensitivity", Opt. Commun., vol. 119, no. 5-6, pp. 523 -526, Sep. 1996.
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  5. M. Kagami, T. Yamashita and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written waveguide three-dimensional optical waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1079-1081, Aug. 2001.
  6. T. Yoshimura, M. Ojima, Y. Arai and K. Asama, "Three-dimensional self-organized microoptelectronic systems for board-level reconfigurable optical interconnects-Performance modeling and simulation", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 492-511, Mar. 2003.
  7. N. Watanabe, Y. Murata, Y. Oyama, T. Ito, H. Ozawa, O. Mikami and T. Shioda, "Self-written connection between GI-MMF and VCSEL using green laser", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. J87-C, no. 5, pp. 488-489, May 2004 .
  8. T. Yamashita, M. Kagami and H. Ito, "Waveguide shape control and loss properties of light-induced self-written (LISW) optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1156-1562, Aug. 2002.
  9. K. Yamashita, T. Hashimoto, K. Oe, K. Mune, R. Naitou and A. Mochizuki, "Self-written waveguide structure in photosensitive polyimide resin fabricated by exposure and thermosetting process", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 801-803, Mar. 2004.
  10. K. Dorkenoo, O. Cregut, L. Mager, F. Gillot, C. Carre and A. Fort, "Quasi-solitonic behavior of self-written waveguides created by photopolymerization", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 20, pp. 1782-1784, Oct. 2002.
  11. O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami and T. Kaino, "Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation for optical interconnections", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 804-806, Mar. 2004.
  12. W. S. Colburn and K. A. Haines, "Volume hologram formation in photopolymer materials", Appl. Opt., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1636-1641, Jul. 1971.
  13. R. Bachelot, C. Ecoffet, D. Deloeil, P. Royer and D. J. Lougnot, "Integration of micrometer-sized polymer elements at the end of optical fibers by free-radical photopolymerization", Appl. Opt. , vol. 40, no. 32, pp. 5860-5871, Nov. 2001.

Other (13)

S. J. Frisken, "Light-induced optical waveguide uptapers", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1035-1037, Jul. 1993.

A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, "Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 24-26, Jan. 1996.

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke and L. Poladian, "Self-writing a waveguide in glass using photosensitivity", Opt. Commun., vol. 119, no. 5-6, pp. 523 -526, Sep. 1996.

S. Maruo and S. Kawata, "Optically-induced growth of fiber patterns into a photopolymer", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 737-739, Aug. 1999.

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written waveguide three-dimensional optical waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1079-1081, Aug. 2001.

T. Yoshimura, M. Ojima, Y. Arai and K. Asama, "Three-dimensional self-organized microoptelectronic systems for board-level reconfigurable optical interconnects-Performance modeling and simulation", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 492-511, Mar. 2003.

N. Watanabe, Y. Murata, Y. Oyama, T. Ito, H. Ozawa, O. Mikami and T. Shioda, "Self-written connection between GI-MMF and VCSEL using green laser", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. J87-C, no. 5, pp. 488-489, May 2004 .

T. Yamashita, M. Kagami and H. Ito, "Waveguide shape control and loss properties of light-induced self-written (LISW) optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1156-1562, Aug. 2002.

K. Yamashita, T. Hashimoto, K. Oe, K. Mune, R. Naitou and A. Mochizuki, "Self-written waveguide structure in photosensitive polyimide resin fabricated by exposure and thermosetting process", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 801-803, Mar. 2004.

K. Dorkenoo, O. Cregut, L. Mager, F. Gillot, C. Carre and A. Fort, "Quasi-solitonic behavior of self-written waveguides created by photopolymerization", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 20, pp. 1782-1784, Oct. 2002.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami and T. Kaino, "Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation for optical interconnections", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 804-806, Mar. 2004.

W. S. Colburn and K. A. Haines, "Volume hologram formation in photopolymer materials", Appl. Opt., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1636-1641, Jul. 1971.

R. Bachelot, C. Ecoffet, D. Deloeil, P. Royer and D. J. Lougnot, "Integration of micrometer-sized polymer elements at the end of optical fibers by free-radical photopolymerization", Appl. Opt. , vol. 40, no. 32, pp. 5860-5871, Nov. 2001.

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