Abstract

This paper presents results obtained with a spatial light modulator (SLM) using a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (LC) material to provide dynamic gain equalization (DGE) for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks. We show the benefit of using a nonchannelized approach to adjust some physical parameters such as the ripple and the maximum obtainable attenuation slope for the spectra to be equalized. Particular attention is paid here to polarization dependence that can result from parasitic anisotropic multiple path interferences as well as induced anisotropy due to a planar transverse field when using a free-space SLM structure. In this frame, we demonstrate an original approach using a depolarizing prism that is only appropriate to such choice of material and that mitigates these effects. Finally, material engineering to widen the operating temperature range is also shortly presented in this paper.

© 2005 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. J. E. Ford and J. A. Walker, "Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-opto-mechanics", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1440-1442, Oct. 1998.
  2. D. Bloom and A. A. Godil, "Dynamic spatial shaping for fiber optic application", U. S. Patent 1 653 701, Feb. 15, 2001.
  3. Y. Liu, P. Wigley and C. P. Brophy, "Dynamically configurable spectral filter", U.S. Patent 6 275 623, Aug. 14, 2001.
  4. J. Tomlison, et al. "Dynamic gain flattening filter", U.S. Patent 6 678 445, Jan. 13, 2004.
  5. Y. Corem and G. Cohen, "Dynamic gain equalizer", U.S. Patent US 2 00 4 126 120, Sep. 5, 2003.
  6. A. Afonso and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Normal law quantile phase filters for mode conversion in single mode fibers applied to wavelength blockers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 647-655, Apr. 2004.
  7. S. Yeralan, J. Gunther, D. L. Ritums, R. Cid and M. Popovich, "Switchable Bragg grating devices for telecommunication applications", Opt. Eng., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1774-1779, Aug. 2002.
  8. T. Loukina, R. Chevallier, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye and M. Barge, "Dynamic spectral equalizer using free-space dispersive optics combined with a polymer dispersed liquid crystal SLM", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2069-2073, Sep. 2003.
  9. H. S. Kitzerow, "Liquid crystals in complex geometries," in Polymer-Dispersed and Polymer Stabilized Chiral Liquid Crystal, G. Crawford, and S. Zumer, Eds. New York: Taylor & Francis, 1996, ch. 8.
  10. J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Engineering liquid crystal for optimal uses in optical communication environments", Liq. Cryst., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 241-269, Feb. 2004.
  11. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, New York: Wiley, 1999, pp. 230-232.
  12. M. Barge, D. Battarel, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, A. Allain, N. Bertin, T. Loukina, N. Brochier and J. L. Barbey, "Dynamic spectral equalizer using a polymer dispersed LC attenuator array", in European Conf. Optical Communications, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 2003,Th2.5.7,. pp. 1000-1001.
  13. V. Nourrit and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Potential uses of the Fourier plane in free-space wavelength demultiplexing systems", Opt. Eng., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 718-727, Mar. 2004.
  14. D. M. Maron and S.-H. Oh, "Filter shape dependence on attenuation mechanism in channelised dynamic spectral equalizer", in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), vol. 2, Holmdel, NJ, Nov. 10-14 2002, pp. 416-417.
  15. G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva and A. S. Kewitsch, "LC modulator and PDS for optical communications", U.S. Patent 6 801 310, Oct. 5, 2004.
  16. D. J. Anderson and M. D. Tillin, "Polarisation independent optical phase modulator", EP Patent 0 878 729, Nov. 18, 1998.
  17. Y. Inoue, et al. "Polarisation mode converter with polymide half waveplate in silica-based lightwave circuits", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 626-628, May 1994.
  18. S. Huard, Polarization of Light, New York: Wiley, 1996.
  19. G. Biener, et al. "Computer-generated infrared depolarizer using space-variant subwavelength dielectric gratings", Opt. Let., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 1400-1402, Aug. 2003.
  20. P. Gautier, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, A. Guenot and E. Salaun, "Engineering liquid crystal for uses in optical communication systems, a key issue: Widening the operating temperature range", in Proc. 15th Conf. on Liquid Crystal, Warsaw, Poland, 2003, pp. 50-51.

Other

J. E. Ford and J. A. Walker, "Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-opto-mechanics", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1440-1442, Oct. 1998.

D. Bloom and A. A. Godil, "Dynamic spatial shaping for fiber optic application", U. S. Patent 1 653 701, Feb. 15, 2001.

Y. Liu, P. Wigley and C. P. Brophy, "Dynamically configurable spectral filter", U.S. Patent 6 275 623, Aug. 14, 2001.

J. Tomlison, et al. "Dynamic gain flattening filter", U.S. Patent 6 678 445, Jan. 13, 2004.

Y. Corem and G. Cohen, "Dynamic gain equalizer", U.S. Patent US 2 00 4 126 120, Sep. 5, 2003.

A. Afonso and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Normal law quantile phase filters for mode conversion in single mode fibers applied to wavelength blockers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 647-655, Apr. 2004.

S. Yeralan, J. Gunther, D. L. Ritums, R. Cid and M. Popovich, "Switchable Bragg grating devices for telecommunication applications", Opt. Eng., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1774-1779, Aug. 2002.

T. Loukina, R. Chevallier, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye and M. Barge, "Dynamic spectral equalizer using free-space dispersive optics combined with a polymer dispersed liquid crystal SLM", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2069-2073, Sep. 2003.

H. S. Kitzerow, "Liquid crystals in complex geometries," in Polymer-Dispersed and Polymer Stabilized Chiral Liquid Crystal, G. Crawford, and S. Zumer, Eds. New York: Taylor & Francis, 1996, ch. 8.

J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Engineering liquid crystal for optimal uses in optical communication environments", Liq. Cryst., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 241-269, Feb. 2004.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, New York: Wiley, 1999, pp. 230-232.

M. Barge, D. Battarel, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, A. Allain, N. Bertin, T. Loukina, N. Brochier and J. L. Barbey, "Dynamic spectral equalizer using a polymer dispersed LC attenuator array", in European Conf. Optical Communications, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 2003,Th2.5.7,. pp. 1000-1001.

V. Nourrit and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Potential uses of the Fourier plane in free-space wavelength demultiplexing systems", Opt. Eng., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 718-727, Mar. 2004.

D. M. Maron and S.-H. Oh, "Filter shape dependence on attenuation mechanism in channelised dynamic spectral equalizer", in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), vol. 2, Holmdel, NJ, Nov. 10-14 2002, pp. 416-417.

G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva and A. S. Kewitsch, "LC modulator and PDS for optical communications", U.S. Patent 6 801 310, Oct. 5, 2004.

D. J. Anderson and M. D. Tillin, "Polarisation independent optical phase modulator", EP Patent 0 878 729, Nov. 18, 1998.

Y. Inoue, et al. "Polarisation mode converter with polymide half waveplate in silica-based lightwave circuits", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 626-628, May 1994.

S. Huard, Polarization of Light, New York: Wiley, 1996.

G. Biener, et al. "Computer-generated infrared depolarizer using space-variant subwavelength dielectric gratings", Opt. Let., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 1400-1402, Aug. 2003.

P. Gautier, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, A. Guenot and E. Salaun, "Engineering liquid crystal for uses in optical communication systems, a key issue: Widening the operating temperature range", in Proc. 15th Conf. on Liquid Crystal, Warsaw, Poland, 2003, pp. 50-51.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.