Abstract

This paper presents the analysis and characterization of partially depleted absorber (PDA) photodiodes. Coupling to these photodiodes is achieved through a planar short multimode waveguide (PSMW) structure. Electric transport in the PDA structure has been investigated and an equivalent electric circuit was developed. Measurements on 5 x 20 µm2 PSMW PDA photodiodes have shown 0.80 A/W responsivity with a fiber mode diameter as high as 6 µm. The transverse electric/transverse magnetic polarization dependence was < 0.5 ± 0.3 dB with -1-dB input coupling tolerances as high as ±2.0 and ± 1.3µm for horizontal and vertical directions. The -3-dB bandwidth was 50 GHz, and the -1-dB compression current at 40 GHz was 17 mA corresponding to +4.5 dBm radio frequency (RF) power. Compared to similar evanescently coupled p-i-n photodiodes, the saturation current has been significantly improved while maintaining comparable bandwidth and high responsivity.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Petitcolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe and L. Ketelsen, "Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1196-1197, Sep. 2002.
  2. S. Demiguel, X. Zheng, N. Li, X. Li, J. Campbell, J. Decobert, N. Tscherptner and A. Anselm, "High-responsivity and high-speed evanescently-coupled avalanche photodiodes integrating a short multimode", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 25, pp. 1848-1849, Dec. 2003.
  3. M. Achouche, A. Konczykowska, P. Brindel, F. Jorge, L. Pierre, F. Blache, S. Vuye, H. Gariah and D. Carpentier, "-28 dBm receiver sensitivity using uni-travelling-carrier photodiode and decision flip-flop at 43 Gb/s in a full transceiver configuration", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden, Sep. 2004.
  4. P. L. Liu, K. J. Williams, M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, "Saturation characteristics of fast photodetectors", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1297-1303, Jul. 1999.
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  6. Y. Muramoto, H. Fukano, T. Furuta and Y. Matsuoka, "A polarization-independent high-efficiency refracting-facet uni-traveling-carrier photodiode with a bandwidth over 50 GHz", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 109-110.
  7. M. Achouche, V. Magnin, J. Harari, F. Lelarge, E. Derouin, C. Jany, D. Carpentier, F. Blache and D. Decoster, "High performance evanescent edge coupled waveguide uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes for > 40-Gb/s optical receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 584-586, Feb. 2004.
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  10. X. Li, S. Demiguel, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, D. L. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, "Backside illuminated high saturation current partially depleted absorber photodetectors", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 20, pp. 1466-1467, Oct. 2003.
  11. X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, H. Tan and C. Jagadish, "A partially depleted absorber photodiode with graded doping injection regions", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2326-2328, Oct. 2004.
  12. S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu and K. A. Anselm, "Very high-responsivity evanescently-coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1761-1763, Dec. 2003.
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  14. T. P. Pearsall, G. Beuchet, J. P. Hirtz, N. Visentin and M. Bonnet, "Electron and hole mobilities in Ga0.47 In0.53 As", in Proc. Gallium Arsenide and Related Compound, Conf. Series Number 56, Vienna, Italy, 1980, pp. 639-649.
  15. W. Liu, III-V Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1998, pp. 189-196.
  16. N. Shimizu, N. Watanabe, T. Furuta and T. Ishibashi, "Bandwidth characteristics of InP/InGaAs uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", in Proc. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics (MWP), Princeton, NJ, 1998, pp. 193-194.
  17. J. E. Bowers and C. A. Burrus, "Ultrawide-band long-wavelength p-i-n photodetectors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 10, pp. 1265-1281, Oct. 1987.
  18. Y. G. Wey, K. Giboney, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, P. Silvestre, P. Thiagarajan and G. Robinson, "110-GHz GaInAs/InP double heterostructure p-i-n photodetectors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1490-1499, Jul. 1995.
  19. K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano and A. Kozen, "Design of ultrawide-band, high-sensitivity p-i-n photodetector", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E76-C, no. 2, pp. 214-221, Feb. 1993.

Other (19)

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Petitcolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe and L. Ketelsen, "Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1196-1197, Sep. 2002.

S. Demiguel, X. Zheng, N. Li, X. Li, J. Campbell, J. Decobert, N. Tscherptner and A. Anselm, "High-responsivity and high-speed evanescently-coupled avalanche photodiodes integrating a short multimode", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 25, pp. 1848-1849, Dec. 2003.

M. Achouche, A. Konczykowska, P. Brindel, F. Jorge, L. Pierre, F. Blache, S. Vuye, H. Gariah and D. Carpentier, "-28 dBm receiver sensitivity using uni-travelling-carrier photodiode and decision flip-flop at 43 Gb/s in a full transceiver configuration", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden, Sep. 2004.

P. L. Liu, K. J. Williams, M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, "Saturation characteristics of fast photodetectors", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1297-1303, Jul. 1999.

N. Shimizu, Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano and T. Ishabashi, "RF saturation mechanism of InP/InGaAs unitravelling-carrier photodiode", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 750-751, Apr. 2000.

Y. Muramoto, H. Fukano, T. Furuta and Y. Matsuoka, "A polarization-independent high-efficiency refracting-facet uni-traveling-carrier photodiode with a bandwidth over 50 GHz", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 109-110.

M. Achouche, V. Magnin, J. Harari, F. Lelarge, E. Derouin, C. Jany, D. Carpentier, F. Blache and D. Decoster, "High performance evanescent edge coupled waveguide uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes for > 40-Gb/s optical receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 584-586, Feb. 2004.

N. Li, X. Li, S. Demiguel, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, D. A. Tulchinsky, K. J. Williams, T. D. Isshiki, G. S. Kinsey and R. Sudharsansan, "High-saturation-current charge-compensated InGaAs-InP uni-traveling-carrier photodiode", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 864-1866, Mar. 2004.

F. J. Effenberger and A. M. Joshi, "Ultrafast, dual-depletion region InGaAs/InP pin detector", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1859-1864, Aug. 1996.

X. Li, S. Demiguel, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, D. L. Tulchinsky and K. J. Williams, "Backside illuminated high saturation current partially depleted absorber photodetectors", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 20, pp. 1466-1467, Oct. 2003.

X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, X. Zheng, J. C. Campbell, H. Tan and C. Jagadish, "A partially depleted absorber photodiode with graded doping injection regions", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2326-2328, Oct. 2004.

S. Demiguel, N. Li, X. Li, X. Zheng, J. Kim, J. C. Campbell, H. Lu and K. A. Anselm, "Very high-responsivity evanescently-coupled photodiodes integrating a short planar multimode waveguide for high-speed applications", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1761-1763, Dec. 2003.

T. Ishibashi, T. Furuta, H. Fushimi, S. Kodama, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, N. Shimizu and Y. Miyamoto, "InP/InGaAs uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E83-C, no. 6, pp. 938-949, Jun. 2000.

T. P. Pearsall, G. Beuchet, J. P. Hirtz, N. Visentin and M. Bonnet, "Electron and hole mobilities in Ga0.47 In0.53 As", in Proc. Gallium Arsenide and Related Compound, Conf. Series Number 56, Vienna, Italy, 1980, pp. 639-649.

W. Liu, III-V Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1998, pp. 189-196.

N. Shimizu, N. Watanabe, T. Furuta and T. Ishibashi, "Bandwidth characteristics of InP/InGaAs uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes", in Proc. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics (MWP), Princeton, NJ, 1998, pp. 193-194.

J. E. Bowers and C. A. Burrus, "Ultrawide-band long-wavelength p-i-n photodetectors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 10, pp. 1265-1281, Oct. 1987.

Y. G. Wey, K. Giboney, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, P. Silvestre, P. Thiagarajan and G. Robinson, "110-GHz GaInAs/InP double heterostructure p-i-n photodetectors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1490-1499, Jul. 1995.

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano and A. Kozen, "Design of ultrawide-band, high-sensitivity p-i-n photodetector", IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E76-C, no. 2, pp. 214-221, Feb. 1993.

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