Abstract

We introduce the concept of the double-cavity Raman fiber laser (DC-RFL) with three Bragg gratings at the laser wavelength. In such RFLs, the threshold pump power and the conversion efficiency at large pump powers can be designed independently of each other, whereas in ordinary single-cavity RFLs these two optimization criteria collide. The particular behavior of DC-RFLs is interpreted, and a simple technique for the numerical simulation and an analytical relation for the threshold pump power of these devices are presented.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. P. N. Kean, B. D. Sinclair, K. Smith, W. Sibbett, C. J. Rowe and D. C. J. Reid, "Experimental evaluation of a fibre Raman oscillator having fibre grating reflectors", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 397-406, 1988.
  2. M. N. Islam, Ed. Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004.
  3. C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, M. Mermelstein, K. Brar and C. Horn, "Raman fiber lasers as pumps for Raman amplification", in Active Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications II, Proc. Int. Society Optical Engineering (SPIE), vol. 4870, Seattle, WA, 2002, pp. 191-205.
  4. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 262-264, Feb. 1997.
  5. S. Cierullies, M. Krause, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Widely tunable CW Raman fiber laser supported by switchable FBG resonators", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication-Integrated Optics Optical Fibre Communication (ECOC-IOOC), Rimini, Italy, 2003,Paper Tu3.2.3,. pp. 224-225.
  6. J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage and S. Radic, "Dual-order Raman pump", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 212-214, Feb. 2003.
  7. M. D. Mermelstein, C. Horn, S. Radic and C. Headley, "Six-wavelength Raman fibre laser for C-and L-band Raman amplification and dynamic gain flattening", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 636-638, Jun. 2002.
  8. F. Leplingard, S. Borne, L. Lorcy, T. Lopez, J.-J. Guérin, C. Moreau, C. Martinelli and D. Bayart, "Six output wavelength Raman fiber laser for Raman amplification", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002,Paper 4.1.2,. pp. 886-887.
  9. C. Headley, "Configurable multiple-wavelength all-fiber laser for efficient stable Raman amplification", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002,paper TuB1,. pp. 8-9.
  10. M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder and B. J. Eggleton, "Configurable three-wavelength Raman fiber laser for Raman amplification and dynamic gain flattening", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1286-1288, Dec. 2001.
  11. V. I. Karpov, W. R. L. Clements, E. M. Dianov and S. B. Papernyi, "High-power 1.48 µ m phosphoro-silicate-fiber-based laser pumped by laser diodes", Can. J. Phys., vol. 78, no. 5-6, pp. 407-413, May-Jun. 2000.
  12. I. A. Bufetov, E. M. Dianov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Grekov, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Shubin, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin and M. V. Yashkov, "CW highly efficient 1.24 µ m Raman laser based on low-loss phosphosilicate fiber", Adv. Fiber Opt., Proc. SPIE, vol. 4083, pp. 111-117, 2000.
  13. S. Cierullies, M. Krause, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Switching dynamics of Raman fiber lasers", presented at the Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf. (CLEO/IQEC), San Francisco, CA, Paper CMD2, 2004.
  14. B. Burgoyne, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, "Transient regime in a nth-order cascaded CW Raman fiber laser", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1019-1024, Mar. 2004.
  15. M. Krause and H. Renner, "Double-cavity Raman fibre lasers with suppressed pump-to-Stokes transfer of low-frequency relative intensity noise", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 656-657, 2004.
  16. M. Krause, S. Cierullies, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Design of widely tunable Raman fibre lasers supported by switchable FBG resonators", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 25, pp. 1795-1797, Dec. 2003.
  17. M. Prabhu, N. Kim and K.-I. Ueda, "Output characteristics of high-power continuous wave Raman fiber laser at 1239 nm using phosphosilicate fiber", Opt. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 297-302, 2000.
  18. M. Rini, I. Cristiani and V. Degiorgio, "Numerical modeling and optimization of cascaded CW Raman fiber lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1117-1122, Oct. 2000.
  19. F. Ahmed, M. Prabhu, A. Taniguchi, N. Kim, K. Ueda and N. Kishi, "Numerical modeling and experimental confirmation of an efficient phosphosilicate-fiber Raman laser", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 6411-6414, Nov. 2001.
  20. N. Kurukitkoson, H. Sugahara, S. K. Turitsyn, O. N. Egorova, A. S. Kurkov, V. M. Paramonov and E. M. Dianov, "Optimisation of two-stage Raman converter based on phosphosilicate core fibre: Modelling and experiment", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 21, pp. 1281-1283, Oct. 2001.
  21. S. D. Jackson and P. H. Muir, "Theory and numerical simulation of nth-order cascaded Raman fiber lasers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1297-1306, Sep. 2001.
  22. M. Rini, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, A. S. Kurkov and V. M. Paramonov, "Experimental and numerical optimization of a fiber Raman laser", Opt. Commun., vol. 203, no. 1-2, pp. 139-144, Mar. 2002.
  23. S. Cierullies, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Numerical optimization of multi-wavelength and cascaded Raman fiber lasers", Opt. Commun., vol. 217, no. 1-6, pp. 233-238, Feb. 2003.
  24. H. Renner, S. Cierullies and M. Krause, "Scaling rules for Raman fiber lasers", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper MF25, 2003.
  25. U. M. Ascher, R. M. M. Mattheij and R. D. Russell, Numerical Solution of Boundary Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
  26. J. AuYeung and A. Yariv, "Theory of CW Raman oscillation in optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 803-807, Jun. 1979.

Other (26)

P. N. Kean, B. D. Sinclair, K. Smith, W. Sibbett, C. J. Rowe and D. C. J. Reid, "Experimental evaluation of a fibre Raman oscillator having fibre grating reflectors", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 397-406, 1988.

M. N. Islam, Ed. Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004.

C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, M. Mermelstein, K. Brar and C. Horn, "Raman fiber lasers as pumps for Raman amplification", in Active Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications II, Proc. Int. Society Optical Engineering (SPIE), vol. 4870, Seattle, WA, 2002, pp. 191-205.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Capacity upgrades of transmission systems by Raman amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 262-264, Feb. 1997.

S. Cierullies, M. Krause, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Widely tunable CW Raman fiber laser supported by switchable FBG resonators", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communication-Integrated Optics Optical Fibre Communication (ECOC-IOOC), Rimini, Italy, 2003,Paper Tu3.2.3,. pp. 224-225.

J.-C. Bouteiller, K. Brar, J. Bromage and S. Radic, "Dual-order Raman pump", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 212-214, Feb. 2003.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Horn, S. Radic and C. Headley, "Six-wavelength Raman fibre laser for C-and L-band Raman amplification and dynamic gain flattening", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 636-638, Jun. 2002.

F. Leplingard, S. Borne, L. Lorcy, T. Lopez, J.-J. Guérin, C. Moreau, C. Martinelli and D. Bayart, "Six output wavelength Raman fiber laser for Raman amplification", in Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002,Paper 4.1.2,. pp. 886-887.

C. Headley, "Configurable multiple-wavelength all-fiber laser for efficient stable Raman amplification", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002,paper TuB1,. pp. 8-9.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder and B. J. Eggleton, "Configurable three-wavelength Raman fiber laser for Raman amplification and dynamic gain flattening", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1286-1288, Dec. 2001.

V. I. Karpov, W. R. L. Clements, E. M. Dianov and S. B. Papernyi, "High-power 1.48 µ m phosphoro-silicate-fiber-based laser pumped by laser diodes", Can. J. Phys., vol. 78, no. 5-6, pp. 407-413, May-Jun. 2000.

I. A. Bufetov, E. M. Dianov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Grekov, S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Shubin, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin and M. V. Yashkov, "CW highly efficient 1.24 µ m Raman laser based on low-loss phosphosilicate fiber", Adv. Fiber Opt., Proc. SPIE, vol. 4083, pp. 111-117, 2000.

S. Cierullies, M. Krause, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Switching dynamics of Raman fiber lasers", presented at the Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics/Int. Quantum Electronics Conf. (CLEO/IQEC), San Francisco, CA, Paper CMD2, 2004.

B. Burgoyne, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, "Transient regime in a nth-order cascaded CW Raman fiber laser", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1019-1024, Mar. 2004.

M. Krause and H. Renner, "Double-cavity Raman fibre lasers with suppressed pump-to-Stokes transfer of low-frequency relative intensity noise", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 656-657, 2004.

M. Krause, S. Cierullies, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Design of widely tunable Raman fibre lasers supported by switchable FBG resonators", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 25, pp. 1795-1797, Dec. 2003.

M. Prabhu, N. Kim and K.-I. Ueda, "Output characteristics of high-power continuous wave Raman fiber laser at 1239 nm using phosphosilicate fiber", Opt. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 297-302, 2000.

M. Rini, I. Cristiani and V. Degiorgio, "Numerical modeling and optimization of cascaded CW Raman fiber lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1117-1122, Oct. 2000.

F. Ahmed, M. Prabhu, A. Taniguchi, N. Kim, K. Ueda and N. Kishi, "Numerical modeling and experimental confirmation of an efficient phosphosilicate-fiber Raman laser", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 6411-6414, Nov. 2001.

N. Kurukitkoson, H. Sugahara, S. K. Turitsyn, O. N. Egorova, A. S. Kurkov, V. M. Paramonov and E. M. Dianov, "Optimisation of two-stage Raman converter based on phosphosilicate core fibre: Modelling and experiment", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 21, pp. 1281-1283, Oct. 2001.

S. D. Jackson and P. H. Muir, "Theory and numerical simulation of nth-order cascaded Raman fiber lasers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1297-1306, Sep. 2001.

M. Rini, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, A. S. Kurkov and V. M. Paramonov, "Experimental and numerical optimization of a fiber Raman laser", Opt. Commun., vol. 203, no. 1-2, pp. 139-144, Mar. 2002.

S. Cierullies, H. Renner and E. Brinkmeyer, "Numerical optimization of multi-wavelength and cascaded Raman fiber lasers", Opt. Commun., vol. 217, no. 1-6, pp. 233-238, Feb. 2003.

H. Renner, S. Cierullies and M. Krause, "Scaling rules for Raman fiber lasers", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Atlanta, GA, Paper MF25, 2003.

U. M. Ascher, R. M. M. Mattheij and R. D. Russell, Numerical Solution of Boundary Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.

J. AuYeung and A. Yariv, "Theory of CW Raman oscillation in optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 803-807, Jun. 1979.

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