Abstract

Benefits provided by higher order bidirectional Raman pumping schemes in 10-Gb/s unrepeated wavelength-division-multiplexing transmission systems are experimentally quantified in terms of BER performances at 10 Gb/s. By keeping under control double-Rayleigh-scattering-noise-induced transmission penalties, which can degrade system performance at very high ON-OFF Raman gain, as well as nonlinear propagation effects such as Brillouin scattering, self-and cross-phase modulations, four-wave-mixing, and Raman-induced crosstalks, we show a total unrepeated system reach enhancement up to 3.5 dB with respect to first-order bidirectional pumping. As confirmed by theory, the maximum reach enhancement is mainly limited by pump-to-signal relative intensity noise transfer induced by higher order copumping.

© 2005 IEEE

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References

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Other (11)

O. A. Sab, "FEC techniques in submarine transmission systems", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper TuF1-3, 2001.

L. Labrunie, F. Boubal, P. Le Roux and E. Brandon, "500 Km WDM 12 x 10 Gb/s CRZ repeaterless transmission using second order remote amplification", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 19, pp. 1394-1395, 2003.

S. B. Papernyi, V. I. Karpov and W. R. L. Clements, "Third order cascaded Raman amplification", presented at the Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper FB4-1, 2002.

V. Karpov, S. Papernyi, V. Ivanov and W. Clements, "Cascaded pump delivery for remotely pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers", presented at the Suboptic, Monte-Carlo, Monaco,Poster Paper We 8.8, 2004.

S. Faralli and F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 804-806, Jun. 2003.

M. D. Mermelstein, K. Brar and C. Headley, "RIN transfer suppression technique for dual-order Raman pumping schemes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1354-1356, Oct. 2003.

N. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurement in optical amplifier systems", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 304-306, Mar. 1993.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 528-530, May 2000.

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani and F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1286-1288, May 2004.

T. Yamamoto and S. Norimatsu, "Statistical analysis on stimulated Raman crosstalk in dispersion-managed fiber links", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2229-2239, Oct. 2003.

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek and R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1140-1148, Aug. 2001.

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