Abstract

Low-loss air trench structures that permit reduced-size bends in low (mmb\Delta = 0.7-7%) and medium (mmb\Delta = 7-20%) index contrast waveguides are demonstrated. Local high index contrast at bends is achieved by introducing air trenches with"cladding tapers"that provide an adiabatic mode transition between low and high index contrast regions. We have fabricated and measured the performance of bends and T-splitters in silica low index contrast waveguides. Complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes are effective in processing, and measured losses are low and consistent with theoretical simulations.

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  1. T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: Passive and thermally active devices", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 38-45, Jan. 2000.
  2. E. A. J. Marcatili, "Bends in optical dielectric waveguides", Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 2103-2132, Sep. 1969.
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  12. R. Germann, H. W. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, I. Massarek and B. J. Offrein, "Silicon oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications", J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 2237-2241, 2000.
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  14. A. del Prado, I. Martil, M. Fernandez and G. Gonzalez-Diaz, "Full composition range silicon oxynitride films deposited by ECR-PECVD at room temperature", Thin Solid Films, vol. 343-344, no. 1, pp. 437-440, 1999.
  15. C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, F. H. P. M. Habraken, W. F. van der Weg and M. Hendriks, "Annealing of plasma silicon oxynitride films", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 2543-2547, 1986 .
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  18. M. Popovic, K. Wada, S. Akiyama, H. A. Haus and J. Michel, "Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1762-1772, Sep. 2002.
  19. A. Sakai, G. Hara and T. Baba, "Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh-\Delta optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 4B, pp. L383-L385, 2001 .

Other (19)

T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: Passive and thermally active devices", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 38-45, Jan. 2000.

E. A. J. Marcatili, "Bends in optical dielectric waveguides", Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 2103-2132, Sep. 1969.

M. Heiblum and J. H. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-11, no. 2, pp. 75-83, Feb. 1975.

D. Rowland, "Nonperturbative calculation of bend loss for a pulse in a bent planar waveguide", IEE Proc., Optoelectron., vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 91-96, Apr. 1997.

I. C. Goyal, R. L. Gallawa and A. K. Ghatak, "Bent planar waveguides and whispering gallery modes: A new method of analysis", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 768-774, May 1990.

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings and H. Blok, "A normalized approach to the design of low-loss optical waveguide bends", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1737-1742, Nov. 1993.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin and F. Cerrina, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 1888-1890, 2001.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Anu, J. Foresi and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1617-1619, 2000 .

M. Loncar, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic and A. Scherer, "Design and fabrication of silicon photonic crystal optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1402-1411, Oct. 2000.

A. Chuntinan and S. Noda, "Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs", Phys. Rev., B, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 4488 -4492, 2000.

A. Talneau, L. L. Gouezigou, N. Bouadma, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis and M. Agio, "Photonic-crystal ultrashort bends with improved transmission and low reflection at 1.55 m", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 547-549, 2002.

R. Germann, H. W. Salemink, R. Beyeler, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, I. Massarek and B. J. Offrein, "Silicon oxynitride layers for optical waveguide applications", J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 2237-2241, 2000.

R. M. de Ridder, K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck and H. Albers, "Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 930-937, Nov.-Dec. 1998.

A. del Prado, I. Martil, M. Fernandez and G. Gonzalez-Diaz, "Full composition range silicon oxynitride films deposited by ECR-PECVD at room temperature", Thin Solid Films, vol. 343-344, no. 1, pp. 437-440, 1999.

C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, F. H. P. M. Habraken, W. F. van der Weg and M. Hendriks, "Annealing of plasma silicon oxynitride films", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 2543-2547, 1986 .

D. Peters, K. Fischer and J. Muller, "Integrated optics based on silicon oxynitride thin films deposited on silicon substrates for sensor applications", Sens. Actuators, A, Phys., vol. 26, no. 1-3, pp. 425-431, 1991.

K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders and T. J. A. Popma, "Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics", Sens. Actuators, A, Phys., vol. 74, no. 1-3, pp. 9-12, 1999.

M. Popovic, K. Wada, S. Akiyama, H. A. Haus and J. Michel, "Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1762-1772, Sep. 2002.

A. Sakai, G. Hara and T. Baba, "Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh-\Delta optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 40, no. 4B, pp. L383-L385, 2001 .

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