Abstract

Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) achieve their desired performance via a pattern of holes that run along the length of the fiber. Varying the hole pattern allows a variety of optical effects to be produced. However, the original hole pattern within the preform may not be accurately transferred to the finished fiber due to the combined impact of material properties and the drawing conditions experienced during fabrication. In this two-part paper, the processes of drawing MOFs having arbitrary cross-sectional hole structures will be analyzed for the case of Newtonian materials. Part I presents a modeling formalism to describe the drawing processes, followed by a scaling analysis on a representative case, i.e., the nonisothermal drawing of an axisymmetric annular hollow fiber, to reveal the major factors influencing the drawing of both silica and polymer MOFs. By treating the primary draw process (i.e., from preform to intermediate cane) in fabricating polymer MOFs as a transient, isothermal problem, numerical simulations were carried out for an illustrative five-hole structure. The results revealed the central importance of any steep neck-down region on hole-shape deformation as well as the importance of forces additional to those associated with surface tension effects. Both experimental observations and numerical modeling show that a diversity of hole"activities"(both in a hole's relative size and shape) can occur when drawing MOFs. Part II will extend both the analysis and numerical modeling with a focus on the steady-state continuous draw process (i.e., from preform or cane to fiber). In parallel with this analysis, we also present experimental results for the drawing of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) MOFs.

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  2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibre", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 961-963, July 1997.
  3. M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre", Opt. Express, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 319-327, Sep. 2001.
  4. M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian and J. Zagari, "Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterisation", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 199-209, Apr. 2003.
  5. J. Choi, D. Y. Kim and U. C. Peak, "Fabrication of properties of polymer photonic crystal fibre", in Proc. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf., Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Sep. 2001, pp. 355-360.
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  20. S. R. Choudhury and Y. Jaluria, "A computational method for generating the free-surface neck-down profile for glass flow in optical fibre drawing", Numer. HeatTransf., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1-24, Jan. 1999.
  21. K. Lyytikinen, P. Råback and J. Ruokolainen, "Numerical simulation of a specialty optical fibre drawing process", in Proc. 4th Int. ASME/JSME/KSME Symp. Computational Technologies for Fluid/Thermal/Chemical/Stress Systems With Industrial Applications, vol. PVP448-2, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2002, pp. 267-275.
  22. H. M. Reeve, A. M. Mescher and A. F. Emery, "Steady-state heat transfer and draw force for POF manufacture", in 12th Int. Conf. on Polymer Optical Fibre, Seattle, WA, Sep. 2003, pp. 220-223.
  23. A. L. Yarin, P. Gospodinov and V. I. Roussinov, "Stability loss and sensitivity in hollow fibre drawing", Phys. Fluids, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1454-1463, Apr. 1994.
  24. P. Gospodinov and A. L. Yarin, "Draw resonance of optical microcapillaries in non-isothermal drawing", Int. J. Multiph. Flow, vol. 23, no. 54, pp. 967-976, Feb. 1997.
  25. S. H.-K. Lee and Y. Jaluria, "The effects of geometry and temperature variations on the radiative transport during optical fibre drawing", J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 317-331, Apr. 1995.
  26. J. Liu, S. J. Zhang and Y. S. Chen, "Advanced simulation of optical fiber drawing process", Numer. Heat Transf., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 473-495, Oct. 2001.
  27. G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstrucured polymer optical fibres", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 325-335, May 2004.
  28. S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, G. W. Barton, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large and L. Poladian, "Fabrication of microstructured optical fibers-Part II: Numerical modeling of steady-state process", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 7, Jul. 2005.
  29. S. Wu, "Surface and interfacial tensions of polymer melts. II. Poly(methylmethacrylate), poly(n-butylmethacrylate) and polystyrene", J. Phys. Chem., vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 632-638, Feb. 1970.
  30. H. M. Reeve, A. M. Mescher and A. F. Emery, "Experimental and numerical investigation of polymer preform heating", J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 285-301, Sep. 2001.
  31. N. P. Bansal and R. H. Doremus, Handbooks of Glass Properties, New York: Academic, 1986, p. 680.
  32. R. M. Patel, J. H. Bheda and J. E. Spruiell, "Dynamics and structure development during high-speed melt spinning of Nylon 6. II. Mathematical modeling", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1671-1682, Mar. 1991.
  33. A. Yarin, V. I. Rusinov, P. Gospodinov and S. Radev, "Quasi one-dimensional model of drawing of glass microcapillaries and approximate solutions", Theor. Appl. Mech., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 55-62, Jan. 1989.
  34. "POLYFLOW User's Manual, ver. 3.10", Fluent Inc. Centerra Resource Park, Lebanon, NH, USA, Sep. 2003.

Other

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Russsell and D. M. Atkins, "All silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 1547-1549, Oct. 1996.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibre", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 961-963, July 1997.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre", Opt. Express, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 319-327, Sep. 2001.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian and J. Zagari, "Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterisation", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 199-209, Apr. 2003.

J. Choi, D. Y. Kim and U. C. Peak, "Fabrication of properties of polymer photonic crystal fibre", in Proc. Plastic Optical Fibre Conf., Amsterdam, The Netherlands,Sep. 2001, pp. 355-360.

M. Large, G. Barton, R. Lwin, L. Poladian, R. I. Tanner, S. C. Xue and H. Yu, "Hole deformation in microstructured optical fibres", presented at the 30th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Stockholm, Sweden,Program We4.P.034, Sep. 2004.

L. Poladian, G. Barton, M. Large, R. Lwin, W. Pok, R. I. Tanner, M. A. van Eijkelenborg and S. C. Xue, "Microstructured polymer optical fibres: Impact of imperfections in design and manufacture", presented at the OptoElectoronics Communications Conf./3rd Int. Conf. Optical Internet, Yokohama, Japan,Jul. 2004.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. Fellew and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and characterization of microstructured optical fibres with elliptical holes", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1336-1338, Jun. 2004.

R. I. Tanner, Engineering Rheology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press Inc., 2000, pp. 340-356.

M. R. Matovich and J. R. A. Pearson, "Spinning a molten threadline-steady-state isothermal viscous flows", Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 512-520, Aug. 1969.

W. W. Schultz and S. H. Davis, "One-dimensional liquid fibers", J. Rheol., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 331-345, Aug. 1982.

M. M. Denn, Computational Analysis of Polymer Processing, J. R. A. Pearson, and S. M. Richardson, Eds. London: U.K.: Applied Science Publ., 1983, pp. 179-215.

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro and C. P. Please, "Modeling the fabrication of hollow fibers: Capillary drawing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1924-1931, Dec. 2001.

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please and D. J. Richardson, "The mathematical modeling of capillary for holey fibre manufacture", J. Eng. Math., vol. 43, no. 2-4, pp. 210-227, Aug. 2002.

S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, R. Lwin and G. Barton, "Drawing optical fibres containing holes", ZAMP, 2005.

K. Lyytikinen, J. Zagari, G. Barton and J. Canning, "Heat transfer in a microstructured polymer optical fibre", Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 255-265, May 2004.

G. Deflandre, "Modeling the manufacturing of complex optical fibres: The case of the holey fibres", in Proc. 2nd Int. Colloquium, Valenciennes, France,Jan. 2002, pp. 150-156.

U. C. Paek and R. B. Runk, "Physical behavior of the neck-down region during furnace drawing of silica fibres", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 4417-4422, Aug. 1978.

M. R. Myers, "A model for unsteady analysis of preform drawing", AIChE J., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 592-602, Apr. 1989.

S. R. Choudhury and Y. Jaluria, "A computational method for generating the free-surface neck-down profile for glass flow in optical fibre drawing", Numer. HeatTransf., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1-24, Jan. 1999.

K. Lyytikinen, P. Råback and J. Ruokolainen, "Numerical simulation of a specialty optical fibre drawing process", in Proc. 4th Int. ASME/JSME/KSME Symp. Computational Technologies for Fluid/Thermal/Chemical/Stress Systems With Industrial Applications, vol. PVP448-2, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2002, pp. 267-275.

H. M. Reeve, A. M. Mescher and A. F. Emery, "Steady-state heat transfer and draw force for POF manufacture", in 12th Int. Conf. on Polymer Optical Fibre, Seattle, WA, Sep. 2003, pp. 220-223.

A. L. Yarin, P. Gospodinov and V. I. Roussinov, "Stability loss and sensitivity in hollow fibre drawing", Phys. Fluids, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1454-1463, Apr. 1994.

P. Gospodinov and A. L. Yarin, "Draw resonance of optical microcapillaries in non-isothermal drawing", Int. J. Multiph. Flow, vol. 23, no. 54, pp. 967-976, Feb. 1997.

S. H.-K. Lee and Y. Jaluria, "The effects of geometry and temperature variations on the radiative transport during optical fibre drawing", J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 317-331, Apr. 1995.

J. Liu, S. J. Zhang and Y. S. Chen, "Advanced simulation of optical fiber drawing process", Numer. Heat Transf., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 473-495, Oct. 2001.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstrucured polymer optical fibres", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 325-335, May 2004.

S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, G. W. Barton, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large and L. Poladian, "Fabrication of microstructured optical fibers-Part II: Numerical modeling of steady-state process", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 7, Jul. 2005.

S. Wu, "Surface and interfacial tensions of polymer melts. II. Poly(methylmethacrylate), poly(n-butylmethacrylate) and polystyrene", J. Phys. Chem., vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 632-638, Feb. 1970.

H. M. Reeve, A. M. Mescher and A. F. Emery, "Experimental and numerical investigation of polymer preform heating", J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 285-301, Sep. 2001.

N. P. Bansal and R. H. Doremus, Handbooks of Glass Properties, New York: Academic, 1986, p. 680.

R. M. Patel, J. H. Bheda and J. E. Spruiell, "Dynamics and structure development during high-speed melt spinning of Nylon 6. II. Mathematical modeling", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1671-1682, Mar. 1991.

A. Yarin, V. I. Rusinov, P. Gospodinov and S. Radev, "Quasi one-dimensional model of drawing of glass microcapillaries and approximate solutions", Theor. Appl. Mech., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 55-62, Jan. 1989.

"POLYFLOW User's Manual, ver. 3.10", Fluent Inc. Centerra Resource Park, Lebanon, NH, USA, Sep. 2003.

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