Abstract

This paper describes the use of a genetic algorithm and two thermally modulated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) reflection intensity spectra to perform the inverse extraction of multiple physical parameters of arbitrary FBGs,including the grating period, grating position, grating length, chirped direction,and refractive-index modulation. The developed numerical approach is applied to synthesize the parameters of uniform and chirped FBGs. The experimental results confirm the ability of the proposed method to recover the grating period, grating length, grating position, refractive-index modulation depth,and apodize factor of a 10-mm-length uniform FBG. The proposed method is suitable for fiber communication applications and smart structure-monitoring systems.

© 2005 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole and J. P. Dakin, "Measurement of arbitrary strain profiles within fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 1028-1029, 1996.
  2. C. J. S. de Matos, P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, W. Margulis and R. Stubbe, "FBG characterization and shaping by local pressure", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1206-1211, Aug. 2001.
  3. N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez and P. Ferdinand, "Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques", Optical Fiber Technol., vol. 5, pp. 119-132, 1999.
  4. J. Azana, M. A. Muriel, L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, "Fiber Bragg grating period reconstruction using time-frequency signal analysis and application to distributed sensing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 646-654, May 2001.
  5. R. Feced, M. N. Zervas and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform FBGs", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1105-1115, Aug. 1999.
  6. J. Skaar and K. M. Risvik, "A genetic algorithm for the inverse problem in synthesis of fiber gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1928-1932, Oct. 1998.
  7. G. Cormier and R. Boudreau, "Real-coded genetic algorithm for Bragg grating parameter synthesis", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 18, pp. 1771-1776, 2001.
  8. F. Casagrande, P. Crespi, A. M. Grassi, A. Lulli, R. P. Kenny and M. P. Whelan, "From the reflected spectrum to the properties of a FBG: A genetic algorithm approach with application to distributed strain sensing", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, pp. 5238 -5244, 2002.
  9. P. Dong, J. Azana and A. G. Kirk, "Synthesis of FBG parameters from reflectivity by means of a simulated annealing algorithm", Opt. Commun., vol. 228, pp. 303-308, 2003.
  10. S. Y. Huang, M. LeBlanc, M. M. Ohn and R. M. Measures, "Bragg intragrating structural sensing", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, pp. 5003-5009, 1995.
  11. M. LeBlanc, S. Y. Huamg, M. Ohn and R. M. Measures, "Distributed strain measurement based on a FBG and its reflection spectrum analysis", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, pp. 1405-1407, 1996.
  12. S. Huang, M. M. Ohn and R. M. Measures, "Phase-based Bragg intragrating distributed strain sensor", Appl. Opt., vol. 35, pp. 1135 -1142, 1996.
  13. S. Huang, M. M. Ohn and R. M. Measures, "Continuous arbitrary strain profile measurements with FBGs", Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 7, pp. 248-256, 1998.
  14. S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, F. Sladen and B. Wojciechowicz, "High accuracy dispersion measurements of chirped fiber grating", Electron Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1280-1282, 1995.
  15. A. Carballer and M. A. Muriel, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1314-1322, Aug. 1997.
  16. J. Skaar and H. Engan, "Distributed intragrating sensing using phase retrieval", in Proc. SPIE, 13th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS 1999), vol. 3746, 1999, pp. 588-591.
  17. H. C. Cheng and Y. L. Lo, "Arbitrary strain distribution measurement using a genetic algorithm approach and two FBG intensity spectra", Opt. Commun. , vol. 239, pp. 323-332, 2004.
  18. B. Dabarsyah, C. S. Goh, S. K. Khijwania, S. Y. Set and K. Kikuchi, "Adjustable dispersion-compensation device with wavelength tunablility based on enhanced thermal chirping of fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 416-418, Mar. 2003.
  19. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.
  20. Z. Michalewicz, Genetic algorithms + Data structures = Evolution Programs , New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (16)

P. Dong, J. Azana and A. G. Kirk, "Synthesis of FBG parameters from reflectivity by means of a simulated annealing algorithm", Opt. Commun., vol. 228, pp. 303-308, 2003.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole and J. P. Dakin, "Measurement of arbitrary strain profiles within fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 1028-1029, 1996.

C. J. S. de Matos, P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, W. Margulis and R. Stubbe, "FBG characterization and shaping by local pressure", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1206-1211, Aug. 2001.

N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez and P. Ferdinand, "Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques", Optical Fiber Technol., vol. 5, pp. 119-132, 1999.

J. Azana, M. A. Muriel, L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, "Fiber Bragg grating period reconstruction using time-frequency signal analysis and application to distributed sensing", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 646-654, May 2001.

R. Feced, M. N. Zervas and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform FBGs", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1105-1115, Aug. 1999.

J. Skaar and K. M. Risvik, "A genetic algorithm for the inverse problem in synthesis of fiber gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1928-1932, Oct. 1998.

G. Cormier and R. Boudreau, "Real-coded genetic algorithm for Bragg grating parameter synthesis", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 18, pp. 1771-1776, 2001.

S. Huang, M. M. Ohn and R. M. Measures, "Continuous arbitrary strain profile measurements with FBGs", Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 7, pp. 248-256, 1998.

S. Barcelos, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, F. Sladen and B. Wojciechowicz, "High accuracy dispersion measurements of chirped fiber grating", Electron Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1280-1282, 1995.

A. Carballer and M. A. Muriel, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in fiber Bragg gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1314-1322, Aug. 1997.

J. Skaar and H. Engan, "Distributed intragrating sensing using phase retrieval", in Proc. SPIE, 13th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS 1999), vol. 3746, 1999, pp. 588-591.

H. C. Cheng and Y. L. Lo, "Arbitrary strain distribution measurement using a genetic algorithm approach and two FBG intensity spectra", Opt. Commun. , vol. 239, pp. 323-332, 2004.

B. Dabarsyah, C. S. Goh, S. K. Khijwania, S. Y. Set and K. Kikuchi, "Adjustable dispersion-compensation device with wavelength tunablility based on enhanced thermal chirping of fiber Bragg gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 416-418, Mar. 2003.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.

Z. Michalewicz, Genetic algorithms + Data structures = Evolution Programs , New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.