Abstract

The benefits of using submicrometer modal-dimension silicon waveguides in realizing high-efficiency parametric Raman wavelength conversion are demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. The combined effects of Raman nonlinearities and free-carrier losses induced by two-photon absorption (TPA) are analyzed using the coupled-mode theory. The analysis indicates that scaling down the lateral dimensions increases the conversion efficiency of the Raman process and reduces the effective lifetime of free carriers and hence ameliorates the free-carrier losses. The feasibility of data conversion is demonstrated by coherent transfer of the analog radio-frequency (RF) signal from Stokes to anti-Stokes channels. The conversion efficiency, and hence signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and bandwidth of the conversion process are found to be limited by the phase mismatch between the pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes fields. The dispersion properties of submicrometer waveguides are also studied from the point of view of achieving phase matching and enhancing the conversion efficiency.

© 2005 IEEE

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Opt. Express

Other

G. T. Reed, "Optical age of silicon", Nature, vol. 427, pp. 595-596, 2004.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 938-947, Nov.-Dec. 1998.

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, G. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo and S. Priolo, "Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals", Nature, vol. 408, pp. 440-444, 2000.

S. Saini, et al. "High index contrast silicon oxynitride materials platform for Er-doped microphotonic amplifiers", presented at the Material Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 12-16, 2004 .

A. Polman and F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, "Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 21, pp. 871-892, 2004.

J. Lee, J. Shin and N. Park, "Optical gain in Si-nanocrystal sensitized, Er-doped silica waveguide using top-pumping 470 nm LED", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Postdeadline Paper, Feb. 22-27, 2004.

J. Ruan, P. M. Fauchet, L. D. Negro, M. Cazzanelli and L. Pavesi, "Stimulated emission in nanocrystalline silicon superlattices", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 5479-5481, 2003.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer size waveguide devices", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2332-2339, Oct. 2003.

J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee and J. C. Campbell, "Metal-germanium-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si with amorphous Ge Schottky barrier enhancement layers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 581 -583, Feb. 2004.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 2745-2747, 2004.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier", presented at the Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier, Hong Kong, Paper WA4, Sep. 29-Oct. 4, 2004.

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitroupoulos and B. Jalali, "Wavelength conversion in silicon using Raman induced four-wave mixing", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 34-36, 2004 .

T. K. Liang, et al. "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 µ m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements", Appl. Phy. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 1323-1325, 2002.

H. Fukuda, et al. Silicon Wire Waveguides and Their Application for Microphotonics Devices , San Francisco, CA: Integrated Photonic Research Conf., Jun. 30-Jul. 2004.

J. J. Wynne, "Optical third-order mixing in GaAs, Ge, Si and InAs", Phys. Rev., vol. 178, pp. 1295-1303, 1969.

K. W. Delong and G. I. Stegeman, "Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical waveguide switching in semiconductors", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 57, pp. 2063-2064, 1990.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-23, no. 1, pp. 123-129, Jan. 1987.

M. A. Mendicino, "Comparison of properties of available SOI materials", Properties of Crystalline Silicon, pp. 992-1001, 1998.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photo-generated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, p. 71 115, 2005.

E. Golovchenko, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii and E. M. Dianov, "Mutual influence of the parametric effects and stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1815-1820, Oct. 1990.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Nonlinear optics in silicon waveguides: Stimulated Raman scattering and two-photon absorption", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4987, 2003, pp. 140-148.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001.

R. J. Bozeat, S. Day, F. Hopper, F. P. Payne, S. W. Roberts and M. Asghari, "Silicon based waveguides," in Silicon Photonics , L. Pavesi, and D. J. Lockwood, Eds. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004, p. 276.

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