Abstract

A monolithic waveguide system using poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) was designed, fabricated, and characterized. The waveguide demonstrated good confinement of light and relatively low attenuation at 0.40 dB/cm. The robustness and handling properties of the completed waveguides were excellent, and the process yield exceeded 96%. The waveguide did exhibit moderate temperature and humidity sensitivity but no temporal variation, and insertion loss remained stable over extended periods of time. Applications of this waveguide system in microscale sensing are immense, judging by the frequency of use of PDMS as the substrate for microfluidic and biomedical systems. The monolithic nature of the waveguides also reduces their cost and allows integration of optical pathways into existing PDMS-based microsystems.

© 2005 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (21)

X.-M. Zhao, S. P. Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides and M. Prentiss, "Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, pp. 1017-1019, Aug. 1997.

J.-S. Kim, J.-W. Kang and J.-J. Kim, "Simple and low cost fabrication of thermally stable polymeric multimode waveguides using a UV-curable epoxy", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. 1277-1279, Mar. 2003.

A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer and A. Driessen, "Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization", in Proc. 2002 Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, 2002, pp. 83-86.

Y. Ansel, D. Grau and M. Holzki, "Assembly of optical fibers for the connection of polymer-based waveguide", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4947, 2003, pp. 102-112.

C.-H. Lin, G.-B. Lee, S.-H. Chen and G.-L. Chang, "Micro capillary electrophoresis chips integrated with buried SU-8/SOG optical waveguides for bio-analytical applications", Sens. Actuators A, Phys., vol. 107, pp. 125-131, Oct. 2003 .

P. Thiébaud, L. Lauer, W. Knoll and A. Offenhäusser, "PDMS device for patterned application of microfluids to neuronal cells arranged by microcontact printing", Biosens. Bioelec., vol. 17, pp. 87-93, Jan. 2002.

J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, R. J. Jackman, O. Cherniavskaya, J. C. McDonald, H. Wu, S. H. Whitesides and G. M. Whitesides, "Fabrication of topologically complex three-dimensional microfluidic systems in PDMS by rapid prototyping", Anal. Chem., vol. 72, pp. 3158-3164, Jul. 2000.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, Berlin, Heidelberg: GDR: Springer-Verlag, 1982,vol. 33, pp. 16-42.

D. K. Mynbaev and L. L. Scheiner, Fiber-Optic Communications Technology, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001, pp. 54-55.

H. C. Hillborg, Loss and Recovery of Hydrophobicity of Polydimethylsiloxane After Exposure to Electrical Discharges, Solna: Sweden: Nykopia Global Print AB, 2001, pp. 13-15.

S. D. Gillmor, B. J. Larson, J. M. Braun, C. E. Mason, L. E. Cruz-Barba, F. Denes and M. G. Lagally, "Low-contact-angle polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) membranes for fabricating micro-bioarrays", in Proc. 2nd Annu. Int. IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conf. Microtechnologies Medicine Biology, 2002, pp. 51-56.

E. Delamarche, C. Donzel, F. S. Kamounah, H. Wolf, M. Geissler, R. Stutz, P. Schmidt-Winkel, B. Michel, H. J. Mathieu and K. Schaumburg, "Microcontact printing using poly(dimethylsiloxane) hydrophilized by poly(ethylene oxide) silanes", Langmuir, vol. 19, pp. 8749-8758, Oct. 2003.

A. Papra, A. Bernard, D. Juncker, N. B. Larsen, B. Michael and E. Delamarche, "Microfluidic networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane), Si and Au coated with polyethylene glycol for patterning proteins onto surfaces", Langmuir, vol. 17, pp. 4090-4095, Jun. 2001 .

S. L. Walker, S. Bhattacharjee, E. M. V. Hoek and M. Elimelech, "A novel asymmetric clamping cell for measuring streaming potential of flat surfaces", Langmuir, vol. 18, pp. 2193-2198, Mar. 2002.

D. J. Beebe, J. S. Moore, Q. Yu, R. H. Liu, M. L. Kraft, B.-H. Jo and C. Devadoss, "Microfluidic tectonics: a comprehensive construction platform for microfluidic systems", Proc. Nat. Academy Sci., vol. 97, pp. 13 488-13 493, Dec. 2000 .

O. Hofmann, G. Voirin, P. Niedermann and A. Manz, "Three-dimensional microfluidic confinement for efficient sample delivery to biosensor surfaces. Application to immunoassays on planar optical waveguides", Anal. Chem., vol. 74, pp. 5243-5250, Oct. 2002.

R. A. Vijayendran, K. M. Motsegood, D. J. Beebe and D. E. Leckband, "Evaluation of three-dimensional micromixer in a surface-based biosensor", Langmuir, vol. 19, pp. 1824-1828, Mar. 2003.

P. A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. R. Reyes and A. Manz, "Micro total analysis systems. 2. Analytical standard operations and applications", Anal. Chem., vol. 74, pp. 2637-2652, Jun. 2002.

H. Chen, D. Acharya, A. Gajraj and J.-C. Meiners, "Robust interconnects and packaging for microfluidic elastomeric chips", Anal. Chem., vol. 75, pp. 5287 -5291, Oct. 2003.

G. S. Rajan, G. S. Sur, J. E. Mark, D. W. Schaefer and G. Beaucage, "Preparation and application of some unusually transparent poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanocomposites", J. Polym. Sci., B , vol. 41, pp. 1897-1901, Aug. 2003.

D. A. Chang-Yen and B. K. Gale, "An integrated optical oxygen sensor fabricated using rapid-prototyping techniques", Lab-on-a-Chip, vol. 3, pp. 297-301, Jun. 2003.

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