Abstract

The authors of this paper investigated the thermal properties and optical properties of typical nonsilica glasses, including viscosity,surface tension, thermal conductivity, transmission, linear and nonlinear refractive index, and fiber attenuation in order to judge the feasibility of using nonsilica glasses as the background material of holey fibers (HFs). Novel techniques were presented to fabricate the nonsilica glass microstructured fiber preforms. Examples of fabricated nonsilica glass HFs with various promising optical applications were finally exhibited.

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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Other (29)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers", Science, vol. 282, pp. 1476-1478, 1998.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell and J.-P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 1347-1348, 1998.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson and N. G. R. Broderick, "Efficient modeling of holey fibers", presented at the Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, Paper FG3, Feb. 21-26, 1999.

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevtsev, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Dispersion compensation using single material fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 674-676, Jun. 1999.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices", Opt. Mater., vol. 3, pp. 187-203, 1994.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick and D. J. Richardson, "Chalcogenide holey fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1998-2000, 2000.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt and D. J. Richardson, "High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper FA1, Mar. 19-21, 2002.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, H. N. Rutt and D. J. Richardson, "Soliton-self-frequency-shift effects and pulse compression in an anomalously dispersive high nonlinearity lead silicate holey fiber", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Atlanta, GA, Postdeadline Paper PD03, Mar. 23-28, 2003.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos and Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission", Nature, vol. 420, pp. 650-653, 2002.

E. H. Fontana, "A versatile parallel-plate viscosimeter for glass viscosity measurements to 1000 ° C", Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull., vol. 49, pp. 594-597, 1970.

A. I. Markov, "Ultrasonic drilling and milling of hard nonmetallic materials with diamond tools", Machine Tooling, vol. 48, pp. 33-35, 1977 .

H. R. Lillie, "Viscosity time temperature relations in glass at annealing temperatures", J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull., vol. 16, pp. 619-631, 1933.

D. Hewak, Ed. Properties, Processing and Applications of Glass and Rare Earth-Doped Glasses for Optical Fibers, London: U.K.: IEE, 1998, ch. A2, pp. 25-34.

H. Scholze, Glass: Nature, Structure and Properties, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991, ch. 3.

H. Scholze, "Der Einbau des Wassers in Glasern", Glastechn. Ber., vol. 32, pp. 81-88, 1959.

M. Cable, R. W. Cahn, P. Haasenm, E. J. Kramer, "Ch. 1: Classical Glass Technology," in Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 9, Glasses and Amorphous Materials, R. W. Cahn, P. Haasenm, and E. J. Kramer, Eds. p. 2629. 1991,

A. Schuster, "Radiation through a fogg atmosphere", Astrophys. J., vol. 21, pp. 1-22, 1905.

R. H. S. Winterton, Heat Transfer, Oxford: U.K.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997, p. 81.

T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, "Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe and ZnS", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 65, pp. 1739-1741, 1994.

I. Kang, T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, B. G. Aitken and N. F. Borrelli, "Femtosecond measurement of enhanced optical nonlinearities of sulfide glasses and heavy-metal-doped oxide glasses", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 12, pp. 2053 -2059, 1995.

N. L. Boiling, A. J. Glass and A. Owyoung, "Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids", IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. , vol. QE-14, no. 8, pp. 601-608, Aug. 1978.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibers at 850 nm", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 53-55, 2000.

D. N. Nikogosyan, Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials: A Handbook, New York: Wiley, 1997, p. 181.

H. Nasu, O. Sugimoto, J. Matsuoka and K. Kamiya, "Non-resonant-type third-order optical nonlinearity of alkali silicate and alkali aluminosilicate glasses-contribution of individual chemical species in the glasses to \chi(3)", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 182, pp. 321-327, 1995.

E. Roeder, "Extrusion of glass", J. Non-Cryst. Solid , vol. 5, pp. 377-388, 1971.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter and K. M. Leung, "Photonic band structure: The face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 2295-2298, 1991.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego and London: Academic, 2001, ch. 2.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase and S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index measurements of glasses of optical crystals", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 39, pp. 3337-3350, 1989.

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma and T. Miyashita, "Preparation of chalcogenide optical fiber", Rev. Electr. Commun. Lab., vol. 32, pp. 469-477, 1984.

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