Abstract

The relationship between Q penalty (QP) and eye-closure penalty (ECP) is examined for distorted signals in the presence of signal-dependent noise. A simple model is developed to describe the behavior of return-to-zero (RZ) modulation formats and is compared with a model for nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) formats. The accuracy of the analysis is investigated with extensive simulations, and the numerical results from analysis and simulation are found to be in generally good agreement. Experimental measurements of distortion caused by uncompensated dispersion also show agreement with the simulation results and model predictions. The simplified models allow a means to budget QPs from distortion effects in a straightforward manner during network design for different modulation formats. The analysis predicts a smaller Q penalty as a function of ECP for RZ modulation formats in comparison with NRZ and smaller relative penalties for RZ formats with narrower pulsewidths.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995.
  2. J. D. Downie and A. B. Ruffin, "Analysis of signal distortion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1876-1886, Sep. 2003.
  3. J. D. Downie, I. Tomkos, N. Antoniades and A. Boskovic, "Effects of filter concatenation for directly modulated transmission lasers at 2.5 and 10 Gb/s", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 218-228, Feb. 2002.
  4. N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner and S. Ahmed, "Performance of cascaded misaligned optical (de)multiplexers in multiwavelength optical networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1073 -1075, Aug. 1996.
  5. N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie and R. E. Wagner, "Performance degradations of WDM systems due to laser and optical filter misalignments", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1179-1180, Jul. 1995.
  6. N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner and S. Ahmed, "Performance degradation of multiwavelength optical networks due to laser and (de)multiplexer misalignments", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1348-1350, Nov. 1995.
  7. T. Otani, N. Antoniades, I. Roudas and T. E. Stern, "Cascadability of passband-flattened arrayed waveguide-grating filters in WDM optical networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1414 -1416, Nov. 1999.
  8. K.-P. Ho, L.-K. Chen and F. Tong, "Modeling of waveform distortion due to optical filtering", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 223-226, Mar.-Apr. 2000.
  9. J. D. Downie, F. Annunziata, J. Hurley and J. Amin, "Relative contributions to filter-induced Q penalty from eye closure and OSNR degradation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2004, Los Angeles, CA, Feb. 22-27, 2004.
  10. J. D. Downie, F. Annunziata, J. Hurley and J. Amin, "Fixed low channel-count OADM filter concatenation experiments with 50 GHz channel spacing and 10 Gb/s NRZ signals", J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 204-213, 2004.
  11. M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1411-1413, Nov. 1999.
  12. M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, C. Reinke and C. Fennelly, "Dispersion-induced power penalty in fiber-Bragg-grating WDM filter cascades using optically preamplified and nonpreamplified receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1406-1408, Oct. 2000.
  13. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Power penalty assessment in optically preamplified receivers with arbitrary optical filtering and signal-dependent noise dominance", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 401-408, Mar. 2002.
  14. N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems", IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 304-306, Mar. 1993.
  15. S. Norimatsu and M. Maruoka, "Accurate Q -factor estimation of optically amplified systems in the presence of waveform distortion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 19-27, Jan. 2002.

Other (15)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995.

J. D. Downie and A. B. Ruffin, "Analysis of signal distortion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1876-1886, Sep. 2003.

J. D. Downie, I. Tomkos, N. Antoniades and A. Boskovic, "Effects of filter concatenation for directly modulated transmission lasers at 2.5 and 10 Gb/s", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 218-228, Feb. 2002.

N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner and S. Ahmed, "Performance of cascaded misaligned optical (de)multiplexers in multiwavelength optical networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1073 -1075, Aug. 1996.

N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie and R. E. Wagner, "Performance degradations of WDM systems due to laser and optical filter misalignments", Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1179-1180, Jul. 1995.

N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner and S. Ahmed, "Performance degradation of multiwavelength optical networks due to laser and (de)multiplexer misalignments", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1348-1350, Nov. 1995.

T. Otani, N. Antoniades, I. Roudas and T. E. Stern, "Cascadability of passband-flattened arrayed waveguide-grating filters in WDM optical networks", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1414 -1416, Nov. 1999.

K.-P. Ho, L.-K. Chen and F. Tong, "Modeling of waveform distortion due to optical filtering", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 223-226, Mar.-Apr. 2000.

J. D. Downie, F. Annunziata, J. Hurley and J. Amin, "Relative contributions to filter-induced Q penalty from eye closure and OSNR degradation", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2004, Los Angeles, CA, Feb. 22-27, 2004.

J. D. Downie, F. Annunziata, J. Hurley and J. Amin, "Fixed low channel-count OADM filter concatenation experiments with 50 GHz channel spacing and 10 Gb/s NRZ signals", J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, pp. 204-213, 2004.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Power penalty for optical signals due to dispersion slope in WDM filter cascades", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1411-1413, Nov. 1999.

M. Kuznetsov, N. M. Froberg, S. R. Henion, C. Reinke and C. Fennelly, "Dispersion-induced power penalty in fiber-Bragg-grating WDM filter cascades using optically preamplified and nonpreamplified receivers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1406-1408, Oct. 2000.

J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Power penalty assessment in optically preamplified receivers with arbitrary optical filtering and signal-dependent noise dominance", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 401-408, Mar. 2002.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems", IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 304-306, Mar. 1993.

S. Norimatsu and M. Maruoka, "Accurate Q -factor estimation of optically amplified systems in the presence of waveform distortion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 19-27, Jan. 2002.

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