Abstract

An all-optical waveform sampling system with simultaneous submilliwatt optical signal sensitivity (20-dB signal-to-noise ratio) and subpicosecond temporal resolution over more than 60-nm optical bandwidth is demonstrated in this paper. The optical sampling was implemented by four-wave mixing in a 10-m highly nonlinear fiber using a sampling pulse source with a sampling pulse peak power of only 16 W. The sampling performance was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, temporal resolution, and optical bandwidth with respect to fiber length, sampling pulse source wavelength offset from the zero-dispersion wavelength of the highly nonlinear fiber, sampling pulse peak power, and walk-off due to chromatic dispersion. This paper also presents a summary of the available methods to achieve polarization-independent optical sampling as well as a brief summary of the available sampling pulse sources viable for optical sampling.

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  1. H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, N. Oda and H. Chiba, "Highly sensitive optical sampling system using timing-jitter-reduced gain-switched optical pulse", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 2142-2143, 1997.
  2. H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa and Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye diagram of 320 Gbit/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively modelocked fiber laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1541-1542, 2001.
  3. I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y. Yamabayashi and T. Morioka, "Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 2087-2089, 2000.
  4. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori and M. Saruwatari, "100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicisecond supercontinuum pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 1152-1153, 1994.
  5. R. L. Jungerman, G. Lee, O. Buccafusca, Y. Kaneko, N. Itagaki, R. Shioda, A. Harada, Y. Nihei and G. Sucha, "1-THz bandwidth C-and L-band optical sampling with a bit rate agile timebase", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1148-1150, Aug. 2002.
  6. S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Endo, "Improvement of sensitivity in optical sampling system", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 917-918, 1999.
  7. T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura and H. Nishihara, "Waveguide quasi-phase-matched sum-frequency generation device for high-efficiency optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1027 -1029, Jan. 1999.
  8. S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta and Y. Endo, "Highly sensitive and time-resolving optical sampling system using thin PPLN crystal", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1727-1728, 2000.
  9. N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa and H. Ohta, "640-Gb/s OTDM signal measurement with high-resolution optical sampling using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1125-1127, Apr. 2004.
  10. S. Kawanishi, T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa and M. M. Fejer, "High sensitivity waveform measurement with optical sampling using quasi-phasematched mixing in LiNbO 3 waveguide", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 842-844, 2001.
  11. B. P. Nelson and N. J. Doran, "Optical sampling oscilloscope using nonlinear fiber loop mirror", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 204-205, 1991.
  12. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 987-989, Sep. 2001.
  13. J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "0.5 Tbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 566-568, Feb. 2004.
  14. C. Schmidt, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, T. Yamamoto, C. Schubert, J. Berger, M. Kroh, H.-J. Ehrke, E. Dietrich, C. Börner, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "Complete optical sampling system with broad gap-free spectral range for 160 Gbit/s and 320 Gbit/s and its application in a transmission system", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, pp. 528-529.
  15. H. Furukawa, H. Takakura and K. Kuroda, "A novel optical device with wide-bandwidth wavelength conversion and an optical sampling experiment at 200 Gbit/s", IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 801-807, Jun. 2001.
  16. M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Yamada and H. Yokoyama, "A compact optical sampling measurment system using mode-locked laser-diode modules", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1537-1539, Nov. 2000.
  17. S. Diez, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt, U. Feiste and H. G. Weber, "160-Gb/s optical sampling by gain-transparent four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1402-1404, Nov. 1999.
  18. K.-L. Deng, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk and P. R. Prucnal, "Single-shot optical sampling oscilloscope for ultrafast optical waveforms", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 397-399, Mar. 1998.
  19. C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, S. Watanabe, F. Futami, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "320 Gb/s all-optical eye diagram sampling using gain-transparent ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (GT-UNI)", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper 2.1.3, Sep. 2002.
  20. I. Kang and K. F. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gb/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1081-1082, 2003.
  21. C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon and M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746 -1748, Dec. 2003.
  22. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang and R. Ryf, "High-sensitivity high-resolution linear sampling up to 640 Gb/s using 90° -waveguide optical hybrid", presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Fransisco, CA, Paper CThQ5, May 2004.
  23. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1088-1099, Mar. 2004.
  24. K. Igawa, A. Otani and Y. Tsuda, "Novel optical sampling oscilloscope without traditional trigger technique and measurement of optical short pulse modulated PRBS pattern", OFC, 2004.
  25. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "160 Gb/s optical data pattern monitoring using a software-synchronized all-optical sampling system", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2003), 2003, Mo3.6.2,. pp. 48-49.
  26. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), 2003, pp. 409-410.
  27. J. Li, P. A. Andrekson and B. Bakshi, "Direct generation of subpicosecond chirp-free pulses at 10 GHz from a nonpolarization maintaining actively mode-locked fiber ring laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1150-1152, Sep. 2000.
  28. H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Endo, "Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain switched optical pulse", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 737-739, 2000.
  29. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995.
  30. N. Yamada, H. Ohta and S. Nogiwa, "Polarization-insensitive optical sampling system using two KTP crystals", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 215 -217, Jan. 2004.
  31. S. Nogiwa, N. Yamada and H. Ohta, "Broad wavelength-bandwidth optical sampling system using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, Paper ThU4,. pp. 533-534.
  32. A. Otani, T. Otsubo and H. Watanbe, "High sensitive optical sampling oscilloscope simultaneous coverage of both C and L bands", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) , Anaheim, CA, Paper WDD65, Mar. 2001.
  33. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Simple scheme for polarization-independent all-optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, Sep. 2004.
  34. A. Tersigni, V. Calle, A. T. Clausen, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. Mørk and P. Jeppesen, "Polarization independent optical sampling using four-wave mixing", presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, Paper CMR2, Jun. 2003.
  35. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, J. Hansryd, J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical synchronous Q-measurements for ultrahigh speed transmission systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, Paper ThU2,. pp. 530-531.
  36. M. E. Fermann, L. M. Yang, M. L. Stock and M. J. Andrejco, "Environmentally stable Kerr-type mode-locked erbium fiber laser producing 360-fs pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 43-45, 1994.
  37. H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamanda, S. Nogiwa and Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye-diagram of 320 Gbit/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively mode-locked fiber laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1541-1542, 2001.
  38. A. Otani, T. Otsubo and H. Watanabe, "A turn-key-ready optical sampling oscilloscope by using electro-absorption modulators", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Nice, France, 1999, pp. I-374-I-375.
  39. D.-S. Seo, D. Y. Kim and H.-F. Liu, "Timing jitter reduction of gain-switched DFB laser by external injection seeding", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 44-45, 1996.
  40. P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor and A. S. Siddiqui, "Gainswitched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 1010-1011, 1996.
  41. R. Calvani, F. Cisternino, R. Girardi and M. Puleo, "All fiber self injection seeding for timing jitter reduction in a chirp compensated gain-swtched DFB laser", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 167-168.
  42. R. Ludwig, S. Diez, A. Ehrhardt, L. Küller, W. Pieper and H. G. Weber, "A tunable femtosecond modelocked semiconductor laser for applications in OTDM-systems", IEICE Trans. Electron., pp. 140-145, 1998.

Other (42)

H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, N. Oda and H. Chiba, "Highly sensitive optical sampling system using timing-jitter-reduced gain-switched optical pulse", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 2142-2143, 1997.

H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa and Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye diagram of 320 Gbit/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively modelocked fiber laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1541-1542, 2001.

I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y. Yamabayashi and T. Morioka, "Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 2087-2089, 2000.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori and M. Saruwatari, "100 Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicisecond supercontinuum pulses", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 1152-1153, 1994.

R. L. Jungerman, G. Lee, O. Buccafusca, Y. Kaneko, N. Itagaki, R. Shioda, A. Harada, Y. Nihei and G. Sucha, "1-THz bandwidth C-and L-band optical sampling with a bit rate agile timebase", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1148-1150, Aug. 2002.

S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Endo, "Improvement of sensitivity in optical sampling system", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 917-918, 1999.

T. Suhara, H. Ishizuki, M. Fujimura and H. Nishihara, "Waveguide quasi-phase-matched sum-frequency generation device for high-efficiency optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1027 -1029, Jan. 1999.

S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta and Y. Endo, "Highly sensitive and time-resolving optical sampling system using thin PPLN crystal", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 1727-1728, 2000.

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa and H. Ohta, "640-Gb/s OTDM signal measurement with high-resolution optical sampling using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1125-1127, Apr. 2004.

S. Kawanishi, T. Yamamoto, M. Nakazawa and M. M. Fejer, "High sensitivity waveform measurement with optical sampling using quasi-phasematched mixing in LiNbO 3 waveguide", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 842-844, 2001.

B. P. Nelson and N. J. Doran, "Optical sampling oscilloscope using nonlinear fiber loop mirror", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 204-205, 1991.

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 987-989, Sep. 2001.

J. Li, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "0.5 Tbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 566-568, Feb. 2004.

C. Schmidt, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, T. Yamamoto, C. Schubert, J. Berger, M. Kroh, H.-J. Ehrke, E. Dietrich, C. Börner, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "Complete optical sampling system with broad gap-free spectral range for 160 Gbit/s and 320 Gbit/s and its application in a transmission system", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, pp. 528-529.

H. Furukawa, H. Takakura and K. Kuroda, "A novel optical device with wide-bandwidth wavelength conversion and an optical sampling experiment at 200 Gbit/s", IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 801-807, Jun. 2001.

M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Yamada and H. Yokoyama, "A compact optical sampling measurment system using mode-locked laser-diode modules", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1537-1539, Nov. 2000.

S. Diez, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt, U. Feiste and H. G. Weber, "160-Gb/s optical sampling by gain-transparent four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1402-1404, Nov. 1999.

K.-L. Deng, R. J. Runser, I. Glesk and P. R. Prucnal, "Single-shot optical sampling oscilloscope for ultrafast optical waveforms", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 397-399, Mar. 1998.

C. Schmidt, C. Schubert, S. Watanabe, F. Futami, R. Ludwig and H. G. Weber, "320 Gb/s all-optical eye diagram sampling using gain-transparent ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (GT-UNI)", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper 2.1.3, Sep. 2002.

I. Kang and K. F. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gb/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 1081-1082, 2003.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon and M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746 -1748, Dec. 2003.

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang and R. Ryf, "High-sensitivity high-resolution linear sampling up to 640 Gb/s using 90° -waveguide optical hybrid", presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Fransisco, CA, Paper CThQ5, May 2004.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1088-1099, Mar. 2004.

K. Igawa, A. Otani and Y. Tsuda, "Novel optical sampling oscilloscope without traditional trigger technique and measurement of optical short pulse modulated PRBS pattern", OFC, 2004.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "160 Gb/s optical data pattern monitoring using a software-synchronized all-optical sampling system", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2003), 2003, Mo3.6.2,. pp. 48-49.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), 2003, pp. 409-410.

J. Li, P. A. Andrekson and B. Bakshi, "Direct generation of subpicosecond chirp-free pulses at 10 GHz from a nonpolarization maintaining actively mode-locked fiber ring laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1150-1152, Sep. 2000.

H. Ohta, S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Endo, "Measurement of 200 Gbit/s optical eye diagram by optical sampling with gain switched optical pulse", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 737-739, 2000.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995.

N. Yamada, H. Ohta and S. Nogiwa, "Polarization-insensitive optical sampling system using two KTP crystals", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 215 -217, Jan. 2004.

S. Nogiwa, N. Yamada and H. Ohta, "Broad wavelength-bandwidth optical sampling system using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, Paper ThU4,. pp. 533-534.

A. Otani, T. Otsubo and H. Watanbe, "High sensitive optical sampling oscilloscope simultaneous coverage of both C and L bands", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) , Anaheim, CA, Paper WDD65, Mar. 2001.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson and P. A. Andrekson, "Simple scheme for polarization-independent all-optical sampling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, Sep. 2004.

A. Tersigni, V. Calle, A. T. Clausen, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. Mørk and P. Jeppesen, "Polarization independent optical sampling using four-wave mixing", presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, Paper CMR2, Jun. 2003.

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, J. Hansryd, J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist and P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical synchronous Q-measurements for ultrahigh speed transmission systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), 2002, Paper ThU2,. pp. 530-531.

M. E. Fermann, L. M. Yang, M. L. Stock and M. J. Andrejco, "Environmentally stable Kerr-type mode-locked erbium fiber laser producing 360-fs pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 43-45, 1994.

H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamanda, S. Nogiwa and Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye-diagram of 320 Gbit/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively mode-locked fiber laser", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, pp. 1541-1542, 2001.

A. Otani, T. Otsubo and H. Watanabe, "A turn-key-ready optical sampling oscilloscope by using electro-absorption modulators", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Nice, France, 1999, pp. I-374-I-375.

D.-S. Seo, D. Y. Kim and H.-F. Liu, "Timing jitter reduction of gain-switched DFB laser by external injection seeding", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 44-45, 1996.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor and A. S. Siddiqui, "Gainswitched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 1010-1011, 1996.

R. Calvani, F. Cisternino, R. Girardi and M. Puleo, "All fiber self injection seeding for timing jitter reduction in a chirp compensated gain-swtched DFB laser", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 167-168.

R. Ludwig, S. Diez, A. Ehrhardt, L. Küller, W. Pieper and H. G. Weber, "A tunable femtosecond modelocked semiconductor laser for applications in OTDM-systems", IEICE Trans. Electron., pp. 140-145, 1998.

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