Abstract

A thermooptic variable optical attenuator (VOA) based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer principle was fabricated in glass by an ion-exchange technique. The thermooptical effect was reached via heating electrodes on the side of the Mach-Zehnder arms. The insertion loss of the device was 1 dB, the dynamic range was 38 dB, maximal power consumption was 138 mW,and the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) was 0.2 dB/0.6 dB at 10 dB/20-dB attenuations, respectively.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. D. Khalil, H. Maaty, A. Bashir and B. Saadany, "The effect of shutter thickness on opto-mechanical variable optical attenuators", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 110-112, 2003.
  2. Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons and H. P. Lee, "An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1563-1565, Nov. 2002.
  3. B. Barber, C. R. Giles, V. Askyuk, R. Ruel, L. Stulz and D. Bishop, "A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1262 -1264, Sep. 1998.
  4. C. Marxer, P. Griss and N. F. de Rooij, "A variable optical attenuator based on silicon micromechanics", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 233-235, Feb. 1999.
  5. W. Noell, et al. "Applications of SOI-based optical MEMS", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 148-154, Jan.-Feb. 2002.
  6. A. Godil, "Diffractive MEMS technology offers a new platform for optical networks", Laser Focus World, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 181-185, 2002.
  7. Y. O. Noh, M.-S. Yang, Y. H. Won and W.-Y. Hwang, "PLC-type variable optical attenuator operated at low electrical power", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 24, pp. 2032-2033, 2000.
  8. S.-S. Lee, J.-U. Bu, S.-Y. Lee, K.-C. Song, C.-G. Park and T.-S. Kim, "Low-power consumption polymeric attenuator using a micromachined membrane-type waveguide", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 407-409, Apr. 2000.
  9. S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin and Y.-S. Son, "Variable optical attenuator based on a cutoff modulator with tapered waveguides in polymers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2556-2561, Dec. 1999.
  10. S. M. Garner and S. Caracci, "Variable optical attenuator for large-scale integration", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1560 -1562, Nov. 2002.
  11. K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada and C. Amano, "Optical-fiber variable-attenuator arrays using polymer-network liquid crystal", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 487-489, May 2001.
  12. H. Ramanitra, P. Chanclou, B. Vinouze and L. Dupont, "Fiber optical variable attenuator using liquid crystal dispersed in polymer", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 19, pp. 1122-1123, 2002.
  13. T. C. Kowalczyk, "Polymer-based multiport variable optical attenuator with low insertion loss", Proc. SPIE, vol. 5212, no. 1, pp. 76-82, 2003.
  14. L. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Cheng, W. Wang and Q. Wang, "Multimode-interference-type thermo-optic variable optical attenuator with a response frequency of 10 kHz", Opt. Eng., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 606-607, 2003.
  15. H. Uetsuka, T. Hasegawa, M. Ohkawa, S. Takasugi, N. Kitano and K. Tanaka, "Variable optical attenuator combined with an arrayed waveguide grating filter for next-generation WDM system", Hitachi Cable Rev., no. 20, pp. 15-18, 2001.
  16. R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: A review", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 984-1002, Jun. 1988.

Other (16)

D. Khalil, H. Maaty, A. Bashir and B. Saadany, "The effect of shutter thickness on opto-mechanical variable optical attenuators", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 110-112, 2003.

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons and H. P. Lee, "An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1563-1565, Nov. 2002.

B. Barber, C. R. Giles, V. Askyuk, R. Ruel, L. Stulz and D. Bishop, "A fiber connectorized MEMS variable optical attenuator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1262 -1264, Sep. 1998.

C. Marxer, P. Griss and N. F. de Rooij, "A variable optical attenuator based on silicon micromechanics", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 233-235, Feb. 1999.

W. Noell, et al. "Applications of SOI-based optical MEMS", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 148-154, Jan.-Feb. 2002.

A. Godil, "Diffractive MEMS technology offers a new platform for optical networks", Laser Focus World, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 181-185, 2002.

Y. O. Noh, M.-S. Yang, Y. H. Won and W.-Y. Hwang, "PLC-type variable optical attenuator operated at low electrical power", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 24, pp. 2032-2033, 2000.

S.-S. Lee, J.-U. Bu, S.-Y. Lee, K.-C. Song, C.-G. Park and T.-S. Kim, "Low-power consumption polymeric attenuator using a micromachined membrane-type waveguide", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 407-409, Apr. 2000.

S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin and Y.-S. Son, "Variable optical attenuator based on a cutoff modulator with tapered waveguides in polymers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2556-2561, Dec. 1999.

S. M. Garner and S. Caracci, "Variable optical attenuator for large-scale integration", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1560 -1562, Nov. 2002.

K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada and C. Amano, "Optical-fiber variable-attenuator arrays using polymer-network liquid crystal", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 487-489, May 2001.

H. Ramanitra, P. Chanclou, B. Vinouze and L. Dupont, "Fiber optical variable attenuator using liquid crystal dispersed in polymer", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 19, pp. 1122-1123, 2002.

T. C. Kowalczyk, "Polymer-based multiport variable optical attenuator with low insertion loss", Proc. SPIE, vol. 5212, no. 1, pp. 76-82, 2003.

L. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Cheng, W. Wang and Q. Wang, "Multimode-interference-type thermo-optic variable optical attenuator with a response frequency of 10 kHz", Opt. Eng., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 606-607, 2003.

H. Uetsuka, T. Hasegawa, M. Ohkawa, S. Takasugi, N. Kitano and K. Tanaka, "Variable optical attenuator combined with an arrayed waveguide grating filter for next-generation WDM system", Hitachi Cable Rev., no. 20, pp. 15-18, 2001.

R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, "Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: A review", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 984-1002, Jun. 1988.

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