Abstract

This paper discusses a phase-sensitive technique for remote interrogation of passive Bragg grating Fabry-Prot resonators. It is based on Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) laser frequency locking, using radio-frequency phase modulation sidebands to derive an error signal from the complex optical response, near resonance, of a Fabry-Prot interferometer. We examine how modulation frequency and resonance bandwidth affect this error signal. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate,when the laser is locked, this method detects differential phase shifts in the optical carrier relative to its sidebands, due to minute fiber optical path displacements.

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Appl. Opt. (7)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Other (28)

A. Arie, B. Lissak and M. Tur, "Static fiber-Bragg grating strain sensing using frequency-locked lasers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1849-1855, Oct. 1999.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, "\pi-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in optical fibers by UV post-processing", Electron. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 1344-1345, 1994.

M. LeBlanc, A. D. Kersey and T.-E. Tsai, "Sub-nanostrain strain measurements using a pi-phase shifted grating", in Proc. 12 Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS 1997), vol. 1967, Williamsburg, VA, 1997, pp. 28-30.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442-1463, Aug. 1997.

A. Othenos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1999.

T. Allsop, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, R. Neal and A. Malvern, "A high resolution fiber Bragg grating resonator strain sensing system", Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 21, pp. 205-217, 2002.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten and T. G. Giallorenzi, "Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensors using phase generated carrier", IEEE J. Quantum Electron. , vol. QE-18, no. 10, pp. 1647-1653, Oct. 1982 .

M. Song, S. Yin and P. B. Ruffin, "Fiber Bragg grating strain sensor demodulation with quadrature sampling of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer", Appl. Opt. , vol. 39, pp. 1106-1111, 2000.

J. T. Kringlebotn, J. Archambault, L. Reekie and D. N. Payne, "Er3+ :Yb3+ -codoped fiber distributed-feedback laser", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, p. 2101, 1994.

Y. J. Rao, M. R. Cooper, D. A. Jackson, C. N. Pannell and L. Reekie, "Absolute strain measurement using an in-fiber-Bragg-grating-based Fabry-Prot sensor", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 708-709, 2000.

E. D. Black, "An introduction to Pound-Drver-Hall laser frequency stabilization", Amer. J. Phys., vol. 69, pp. 79-87, 2001 .

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson and R. L. Byer, "Sub-Hertz relative frequency stabilization of two-diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Prot interferometer", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1106-1117, Apr. 1992.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brndle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen and J. Patscheider, "Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1758-1760, Dec. 2003.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator", Appl. Phys. B, vol. 31, pp. 97 -105, 1983.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy and S. J. Smith, "Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification", Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys., vol. 26, pp. 12-18, 1982 .

T.-C. Zhang, J.-P. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson and E. Giacobino, "Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes", Quantum Semiclass. Opt., vol. 7, pp. 601-613, 1995.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. London: U.K.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997.

[Online]. Available: http://www.corning.com/

N. Park, J. W. Dawson and K. J. Vahala, "Frequency locking of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser to an external fiber Fabry-Perot resonator", Opt. Lett. , vol. 18, pp. 879-881, 1993.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler and J.-F. Bayon, "Modeling of pair-induced quenching in erbium-doped silicate fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 73, Jan. 1993.

F. Sanchez, P. le Boudec, P.-L. Franois and G. Stephan, "Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers", Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys., vol. 48, p. 2220, 1993.

W. H. Loh and J. P. de Sandro, "Suppression of self-pulsing behavior in erbium-doped fiber lasers with resonant pumping: Experimental results", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, p. 1475, 1996.

M. Ding and P. K. Cheo, "Dependence of ion-pair induced self-pulsing in Er-doped fiber lasers on emission to absorption ratio", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 12, p. 1627, Dec. 1996.

M. Ding and P. K. Cheo, "Effects of Yb:Er-Codping on Suppressing Self-Pulsing in Er-Doped Fiber Lasers", vol. 9, p. 324, 1997.

D. Amroun, et al. "Suppression of self-pulsing in Er-doped fiber lasers with electronic control", J. Mod. Opt., vol. 47, pp. 1247-1252, 2000.

L. Dong, W. H. Loh, J. E. Caplen, J. D. Minelly, K. Hsu and L. Reekie, "Efficient single-frequency fiber lasers with novel photosensitive Er/Yb optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, p. 694, 1997.

A. L. G. Carter, "Personal Communication", Nufern, 2004 .

W. S. Man, Y. Z. Xu and H. Y. Tam, "Frequency instability in Er/Yb fiber grating lasers due to heating by nonradiative transitions", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1390-1392, Nov. 1999.

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