Abstract

Enhanced security has often been cited as an important benefit of optical code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) signaling but has seldom been analyzed in detail. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the degree of confidentiality that can be provided by spectral-phase-encoded O-CDMA. Two eavesdropping detector structures are presented that can theoretically break the confidentiality of spectral-phase-encoded signals by detecting the code words in use by a specific user. One of them, an optical beat detector,is quantitatively analyzed to determine the probability of correctly detecting user code words. The confidentiality of user signals is shown to be vulnerable to such a detector if an eavesdropper can isolate a single user signal with a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). At lower SNRs, combining multiple bits is shown to dramatically increase the probability of an eavesdropper correctly detecting user code words; even for codes long enough to strain implementation capabilities (e.g., 2048 code elements), the probability of correct detection is shown to rise from negligibly low values to virtually 100% by the combining of less than 100 transmitted bits at the eavesdropper's receiver.

© 2005 IEEE

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  7. H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.
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  13. Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical considerations", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3085-3103, Dec. 2003.
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Other (15)

N. Karafolas and D. Uttamcandani, "Optical fiber code division multiple access networks: a review", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 2, pp. 149-168, 1996.

K. Iverson and D. Hampicke, "Comparison and classification of all-optical CDMA systems for future telecommunication networks", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2614, 1995, pp. 110- 121.

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic and J. Budin, "Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 573-575, May 1995.

P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente and M. C. R. Carvalho, "Security system for optical communication signals with fiber bragg gratings", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 13-16, Jan. 2002.

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock and R. A. Griffin, "Photonic code-division multiple-access communications", Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 16, pp. 129-157, 1997.

T. H. Shake, "Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 655-670, Feb. 2005.

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort pulse code-division multiple access communication systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 478-491, Mar. 1990.

N. Ferguson and B. Schneier, Practical Cryptography, Indianapolis, IN: Wiley, 2003.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage and J. A. Salehi, "Encoding and decoding of femtosecond pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 300-302, Apr. 1988.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage and E. M. Kirschner, "High-resolution femtosecond pulse shaping", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1563-1572, Aug. 1988.

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1929-1960, May 2000.

Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical considerations", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3085-3103, Dec. 2003.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 3rd ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp. 159-163.

G. J. Miao and M. A. Clements, Digital Signal Processing and Statistical Classification, Boston, MA: Artech House, 2002.

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