Abstract

The design and performance of several generations of wavelength-selective 1 x K switches are reviewed. These optical subsystems combine the functionality of a demultiplexer, per-wavelength switch, and multiplexer in a single, low-loss unit. Free-space optics is utilized for spatially separating the constituent wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channels as well as for space-division switching from an input optical fiber to one of K output fibers (1 x K functionality) on a channel-by-channel basis using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) micromirror array. The switches are designed to provide wide and flat passbands for minimal signal distortion. They can also provide spectral equalization and channel blocking functionality, making them well suited for use in transparent WDM optical mesh networks.

© 2005 IEEE

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  2. T. Stern and K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1999.
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  5. A. Boskovic, M. Sharma, N. Antoniades and M. Lee, "Broadcast and select OADM nodes application and performance trade-offs", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2002.
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (26)

R. Ramaswami and K. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, New York: Morgan Kaufmann, 1998.

T. Stern and K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1999.

J. Ford, "Micromechanical wavelength add/drop switching: From device to network architecture", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2003.

D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, H. Tang, L. Ko, N. R. Basavanhally, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, J. D. Weld, Y. L. Low, J. Prybyla, R. Scotti, A. Gasparyan, M. Haueis, S. Arney, S. P. O'Neill, C.-S. Pai, D. H. Malkani, M. M. Meyers, N. Saluzzi, S. H. Oh, O. D. Lopez, G. R. Bogart, F. P. Klemens, M. Luo, J. Q. Liu, K. Teffeau, A. Ramirez, K. S. Werder, J. E. Griffith, C. Frye, M. V. Kunnavakkam, S. T. Stanton, J. A. Liddle, H. T. Soh, T.-C. Lee, O. Nalamasu and K. C. Nguyen, "High-dynamic range channelized MEMS equalizing filter", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2002.

A. Boskovic, M. Sharma, N. Antoniades and M. Lee, "Broadcast and select OADM nodes application and performance trade-offs", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2002.

D. T. Neilson, H. Tang, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, L. Ko, D. A. Ramsey, J. D. Weld, Y. L. Low, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, P. Busch, J. Prybyla, M. Haueis, C. S. Pai, R. Scotti and R. Ryf, "Channel equalization and blocking filter utilizing micro electro mechanical mirrors", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electronics , vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 563-569, May./Jun. 2004. to be published.

J. E. Ford, V. A. Aksyuk, D. J. Bishop and J. A. Walker, "Wavelength add-drop switching using tilting micromirrors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 904-911, May 1999.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Paunsecu, E. Laskowski, S. Chandrasekhar and L. Buhl, "2 x 2 wavelength-selective cross connect capable of switching 128 channels in sets of eight", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 387 -389, Mar. 2002.

W. J. Tomlinson, "Dynamic gain equalization for next-generation DWDM transport systems", in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components, 2001 Dig. LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, Jul.-Aug. 30-1 2001, pp. 2-2.

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, P. R. Kolodner, Y. L. Low, C. A. Bolle, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Buhl, S.-H. Oh, C.-S. Pai, K. Werder, H. T. Soh, G. R. Bogart, E. Ferry, F. P. Klemens, K. Teffeau, J. F. Miner, S. Rogers, J. E. Bower, R. C. Keller and W. Mansfield, "Wavelength selective 1 x 4 switch for 128 WDM channels at 50 GHz spacing", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2002.

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, V. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, N. R. Basavanhally, P. R. Kolodner, Y. L. Low, F. Pardo, C. A. Bolle, C. S. Pai, D. López, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, J. Leuthold, M. Gibbons and C. R. Giles, "Wavelength selective 4 x 1 switch with high spectral efficiency, 10 dB dynamic equalization range and internal blocking capability", in ECOC, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 21-25 2003,Paper Mo3.5.3.

T. Ducellier, J. Bismuth, S. F. Roux, A. Gillet, C. Merchant, M. Miller, M. Mala, Y. Ma, L. Tay, J. Sibille, M. Alavanja, A. Deren, M. Cugalj, D. Ivancevic, V. Dhuler, E. Hill, A. Cowen, B. Shen and R. Wood, "The MWS 1 x 4: A high performance wavelength switching building block", presented at the ECOC, 2002.

M. C. Wu, J. C. Tsai, S. Huang and H. Dooyoung, "MEMS WDM routers using analog micromirror arrays", in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2002. LEOS 2002. The 15th Ann. Meeting IEEE, vol. 2, Nov. 10-14 2002, pp. 582-583.

D. T. Fuchs, C. R. Doerr, V. A. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen and R. Pafchek, "A hybrid MEMS-waveguide wavelength selective cross connect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 99-101, Jan. 2004.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel and T. Murphy, "Eight-wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 138-140, Jan. 2003.

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, J. Leuthold, M. Gibbons and C. R. Giles, "64 channel 4 x 4 wavelength-selective cross-connect for 40 Gb/s channel rates with 10 Tb/s throughput capacity", in ECOC, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 21-25 2003,Paper We4.P.130.

M. Vasilyev, I. Tomkos, M. Mehendale, J.-K. Rhee, A. Kobyakov, M. Ajgaonkar, S. Tsuda and M. Sharma, "Transparent ultra-long-haul DWDM networks with"broadcast-and-select"OADM/OXC architecture", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2661-2672, Nov. 2003.

J. E. Ford, D. J. DiGiovanni and D. J. Reiley, "1x N fiber bundle scanning switch", in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. '98, Tech. Dig., Feb. 22-27 1998, pp. 143-144.

E. G. Loewen and E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Application, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997.

D. M. Marom and S. Oh, "Filter-shape dependence on attenuation mechanism in channelized dynamic spectral equalizers", in 15th Ann. Meeting Lasers Electro-Optics Society, 2002. LEOS 2002, vol. 2, Nov. 13-14 2002, pp. 416-417.

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, R. Ryf and H. Shea, "Effect of mirror curvature in MEMS micro-mirror based wavelength-selective switches", in LEOS 16th Annu. Meeting 2003, Tucson, AZ,paper TuO4.

S. Pau, N. Chand, K. Kojima and V. Swaminathan, "Transient effects and cascadability of an MEMS-based dynamic-gain equalizing filter: A case study", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 347-349, Feb. 2003.

"Model 54-* -544H", Richardson Grating Laboratory (now Spectra Physics),

D. López, M. E. Simon, F. Pardo, V. Aksyuk, F. Klemens, R. Cirelli, D. T. Neilson, H. Shea, T. Sorsch, E. Ferry, O. Nalamasu and P. L. Gammel, "Monolithic MEMS optical switch with amplified out-of-plane angular motion", in MOEMS 2002 Int. Conf. Optical MEMS, Lugano, Switzerland,Aug. 2002,Paper ThB5,. pp. 165-166.

D. S. Greywall, C.-S. Pai, S. H. Oh, C.-P. Chang, D. M. Marom, P. A. Busch, R. A. Cirelli, J. A. Taylor, F. P. Klemens, T. W. Sorsch, J. E. Bower, W. Y.-C. Lai and H. T. Soh, "Monolithic, fringe-field-activated crystaline silicon tilting mirror devices", J. Microelectromechanical Syst.,

H. K. Kim, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Spector and L. Buhl, "Error-free operation of a large scale (16 nides cascaded over total distance of 600 km) optical network based on dense WDM (15 100 GHz-spaced 10 Gbit/s/channel) channels", Elec. Lett. , vol. 36, pp. 654-655, 2000.

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