Abstract

We theoretically and experimentally investigate the characteristics of a multichannel add/drop filter which utilizes in-plane hetero photonic crystals (IP-HPCs). The structure consists of an in-plane array of photonic crystals with different lattice-constants. Finite-difference time-domain calculations reveal that optimal performance in terms of wavelength resolution and efficiency can be kept almost constant at different wavelengths even though slab thickness is not changed. The multichannel add/drop device fabricated consists of seven photonic crystals, with a lattice parameter difference of 1.25 nm between neighboring regions. This device demonstrated wavelength spacing ~5 nm with almost constant Q factor and efficiency. It is also shown that the boundary between different PCs (the heterointerface), plays an important role not only in improving add/drop efficiency but also in performing directional filtering.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 58, pp. 2059-2062, 1987.
  2. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths", Science, vol. 289, pp. 604-606, 2000.
  3. A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs", Phys. Rev. B, vol. 62, pp. 4488 -4492, 2000.
  4. M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 87, pp. 253 902-253 905, 2001.
  5. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 77, pp. 3787-3790, 1996.
  6. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal", Nature, vol. 425, pp. 944-947, 2003.
  7. K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 1915-1917, 2003.
  8. S. Noda, A. Chutinan and M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure", Nature, vol. 407, pp. 608-610, 2000.
  9. A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 2690-2692, 2001.
  10. B. S. Song, S. Noda and T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals", Science, vol. 300, p. 1537, 2003.
  11. K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-14, no. 3, pp. 302-307, May 1966.
  12. Y. Akahane, M. Mochizuki, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka and S. Noda, "Design of a channel drop filter by using a donor-type cavity with high-quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 1341-1343, 2003.
  13. T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Tanaka and S. Noda, "Investigation of a channel-add/drop-filtering device using acceptor-type point defects in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 407-409, 2003.
  14. O. Painter, J. Vuckovic and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 16, pp. 275-285, 1999.
  15. C. Manalatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1322-1331, Sep. 1999.
  16. A. Das and S. K. Das, Microwave Engineering, Singapore: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
  17. B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane and S. Noda, "Role of interfaces in heterophotonic crystals for manipulation of photons", Phys. Rev. B, to be published.
  18. M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki and T. Tanaka, "Channel drop filter using a single defect in a 2-D photonic crystal slab waveguide", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 873-878, May 2002.
  19. B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, pp. 4591-4593, 2004.
  20. Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B. S. Song and S. Noda, "Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 82, pp. 1661-1663, 2003.
  21. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1669-1670, 2002.
  22. E. Miyai and S. Noda, "Structural dependence of coupling between a two-dimensional photonic crystals waveguide and a wire waveguide", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 21, pp. 67-72, 2004.
  23. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 736-742, Jul. 2002.
  24. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song and S. Noda, "Investigation of high-Q channel drop filters using donor-type defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 1512-1514, 2003.

Other (24)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 58, pp. 2059-2062, 1987.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths", Science, vol. 289, pp. 604-606, 2000.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs", Phys. Rev. B, vol. 62, pp. 4488 -4492, 2000.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 87, pp. 253 902-253 905, 2001.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 77, pp. 3787-3790, 1996.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal", Nature, vol. 425, pp. 944-947, 2003.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 1915-1917, 2003.

S. Noda, A. Chutinan and M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure", Nature, vol. 407, pp. 608-610, 2000.

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 2690-2692, 2001.

B. S. Song, S. Noda and T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals", Science, vol. 300, p. 1537, 2003.

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-14, no. 3, pp. 302-307, May 1966.

Y. Akahane, M. Mochizuki, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka and S. Noda, "Design of a channel drop filter by using a donor-type cavity with high-quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 1341-1343, 2003.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Tanaka and S. Noda, "Investigation of a channel-add/drop-filtering device using acceptor-type point defects in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 407-409, 2003.

O. Painter, J. Vuckovic and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 16, pp. 275-285, 1999.

C. Manalatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1322-1331, Sep. 1999.

A. Das and S. K. Das, Microwave Engineering, Singapore: McGraw-Hill, 2001.

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane and S. Noda, "Role of interfaces in heterophotonic crystals for manipulation of photons", Phys. Rev. B, to be published.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki and T. Tanaka, "Channel drop filter using a single defect in a 2-D photonic crystal slab waveguide", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 873-878, May 2002.

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, pp. 4591-4593, 2004.

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B. S. Song and S. Noda, "Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 82, pp. 1661-1663, 2003.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single fibers", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1669-1670, 2002.

E. Miyai and S. Noda, "Structural dependence of coupling between a two-dimensional photonic crystals waveguide and a wire waveguide", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 21, pp. 67-72, 2004.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 736-742, Jul. 2002.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song and S. Noda, "Investigation of high-Q channel drop filters using donor-type defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, pp. 1512-1514, 2003.

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