Abstract

This paper reports a novel architecture for the design of dense wavelength-division multiplexing interleavers based on planar echelle gratings. Double astigmatic point design of the echelle grating is discussed. The important and inherent limitation of aberrations associated with the echelle grating has been eliminated by the introduction of aberration free elliptical facets. A mechanism for compensating the variations of the refractive index with wavelength is also described. The theoretical analysis was used to design and manufacture remarkably low footprint 50/100 and 100/200 GHz interleavers in silica-on-silicon with the waveguide refractive index contrast of 0.62%. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental results shows an excellent agreement. The fabricated devices based on the proposed approach showed low nonuniformity in insertion loss, high dynamic range, and precise channel periodicity over the entire C band.

© 2005 IEEE

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Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (14)

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. J. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee and W. H. Cheng, "Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase-dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 242-244, Feb. 2003.

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata and Y. Yoshikuni, "200-GHz FSR periodic multi/demultiplexer with flattened transmission and rejection band by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with ring resonator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1174-1176, Sep. 2000.

C. Roeloffzen, R. M. Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Worhoff and A. Driessen, "Passband flattening and rejection band broadening of a periodic Mach-Zehnder wavelength filter by adding a tuned ring resonator", presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper P1.20, Sep. 8-12, 2002.

S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao and G. Barbarossa, "Birefringent Gires-Tournois interferometer (BGTI) for DWDM interleaving", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC) , Anaheim, CA, Paper ThC3, Mar. 17-22, 2002.

D. W. Huang, T. H. Chiu and Y. Lai, "Arrayed waveguide grating DWDM interleaver", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper WDD80-1, Mar. 17-22, 2001.

T. Chiba, H. Arai, K. Ohira, H. Nonen, H. Okano and H. Uetsuka, "Novel architecture of wavelength interleaving filter with Fourier transform-based MZIs", presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC) , Anaheim, CA, Paper WB5-1, Mar. 17-22, 2001.

Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron, vol. 143, no. 5, pp. 263-280, 1996.

P. Muthukumaran and A. Delâge, "Planar waveguide echelle grating device with astigmatic grating facets", U.S. Provisional Patent 09/986 828, 2001.

H. A. Rowland, "Preliminary notice on the results accomplished in the manufacturing and theory of gratings for optical purposes", Philosoph. Mag., vol. 13, pp. 469-474, 1882.

R. Marz, 8 Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1995.

G. Smith and T. King, Optics and Photonics, New York: Wiley, 2000.

S. Bidnyk, A. Balakrishnan, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, M. Pearson, B. Sayavong and A. Delâge, "Planar echelle grating DWDM comb filters", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC) , Los Angeles, CA, Feb. 2004.

A. Delâge and K. Dossou, "Polarization dependent loss calculation in echelle gratings using finite element method and rayleigh expansion", Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 1-3, pp. 223-238, 2004.

P. Leisching, H. Bock, A. Richter, C. Glingener, P. Pace, B. Keyworth, J. Philipson, M. Farries, D. Stoll and G. Fischer, "All-optical-networking at 0.8 Tb/s Usig reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 918-920, Jul. 2000.

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