Abstract

Locally reducing the width of a wide photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide generates a constriction which acts as an internal reflector. We have simulated and measured the spectral behavior of a wide PhC waveguide locally constricted to a narrower PhC waveguide and ended by two cleaved facets, thus generating two coupled cavities. Passive structures as well as electrically injected active structures have been investigated. The multimode behavior of wide PhC waveguides is evidenced to play a deciding role. Modal reflection and transmission at the constriction are simulated and measured on passive PhC waveguides,when varying the constrictions' hole size and length. The spectral behavior of full-PhC electrically pumped lasers including such a constriction is measured and analyzed according to the constriction geometry. Design rules are finally proposed to take advantage of this coupled-cavities behavior for high rejection and high external efficiency monomode laser operation.

© 2005 IEEE

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Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (19)

A. Talneau, Ph. Lalanne, M. Agio and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low-reflection photonic-crystal taper for efficient coupling between guide sections of arbitrary widths", Opt. Lett. , vol. 27, pp. 1522-1524, Sep. 2002.

T. D. Happ, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, J. L. Gentner and L. Goldstein, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 4-6, Jan. 2003.

A. Talneau, L. Legratiet, J. L. Gentner, A. Berrier, M. Mulot and S. Anand, "High external efficiency in a monomode full-photonic-crystal laser under continuous wave electrical injection", in Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 1913, 2004, p. 1913.

M. Kamp, T. Happ, S. Mahnkopf, A. Forchel, S. Anand and G. H. Duan, "Tunable photonic crystal based semiconductor lasers", in ECOC'03,, pp. 46-47.

E. Schwoob, H. Benisty, S. Olivier, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, R. Houdré and U. Oesterle, "Two-mode fringes in planar photonic crystal waveguides with constrictions: A probe that is sensitive to propagation losses", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 19, pp. 2403-2412, Oct. 2002.

T. D. Happ, A. Markard, M. Kamp and A. Forchel, "Single-mode operation of coupled-cavity lasers based on two-dimensional photonic crystals", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 4091-4093, Dec. 2001.

A. B. Massara, L. J. Sargent, P. J. Heard, R. V. Penty and I. H. White, "Mode-hop-free, singlemode operation of 2D lattice distributed reflector laser under 2.5 Gbit/s modulation", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, pp. 141-142, Jan. 2000.

L. A. Coldren and T. L. Koch, "Analysis and design of coupled-cavity lasers-Part I: Threshold gain analysis and design guidelines", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 20, pp. 659-670, Jun. 1984.

W. Streifer, D. Yevick, T. L. Paoli and R. D. Burnham, "An analysis of cleaved coupled-cavity lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 20, pp. 754-763, Jul. 1984.

H. K. Choi, K. L. Chen and S. Wang, "Analysis of two-section coupled-cavity semiconductor lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 20, pp. 385-393, Apr. 1984.

J. E. Bowers, J. E. Bjorkholm, C. A. Burrus, L. A. Coldren and B. R. Hemenway, "Cleaved-coupled-cavity lasers with large cavity length ratio for enhanced stability", Appl. Phys. Lett. , vol. 44, pp. 821-823, May 1984.

T. L. Koch and L. A. Coldren, "Optimum coupling junction and cavity lengths for coupled-cavity semiconductor laser", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 740-754, Feb. 1985.

Alcor BPM Software.

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Levassord'Yerville, D. Cassagne and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic crystal waveguide on InP membranes", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 2312-2314, Oct. 2001.

M. Mulot, S. Anand, M. Swillo, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, B. Jaskorzynska and A. Talneau, "Low-loss InP-based photonic-crystal waveguides etched with Ar/C12 chemically assisted ion beam etching", J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. B21, no. 2, p. 900, Mar./Apr. 200e.

A. Lestra, V. Colson, J. L. Gentner, L. Le Gouezigou, E. V. K. Rao, D. Tregoat, L. Goldstein and B. Fernier, "High efficiency spot-size converter 1.3 µ m Fabry-Pérot laser diode for 2.5 Gbit/s applications", in ECOC'1999,, pp. 18-19.

A. Carenco, G. Hervé-Gruyer, L. Ménigaux, A. Mircea and A. Ougazzaden, "Low-loss 3 cm long InP/InGaAsP rib waveguides", in Proc. SPIE, ECIO'1989, vol. 1141, pp. 119-125.

A. Talneau, M. Mulot, S. Anand and Ph. Lalanne, "Compound cavity measurement of transmission and reflection of a tapered single-line photonic-crystal waveguide", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 2577-2579, Apr. 2003.

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, R. Houdré, U. Oesterle and V. Bardinal, "Diffraction efficiency and guided light control by two-dimensional photonic-bandgap lattices", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, pp. 1045 -1052, Jul. 1999.

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