Abstract

There is a growing need for compact, efficient integrated waveguide optical amplifiers for use in optoelectronic communication. Zn2Si_0.5Ge_0.5O4 (ZSG) doped with Er (ZSG-Er) is a promising new host material due to the high concentration of Er that can be incorporated and the high optical activity of the incorporated Er. In this paper, the absorption and emission cross sections of Er in ZSG-Er (to the authors' knowledge,for the first time) are measured both through photoluminescence spectra and direct gain and absorption measurements. Peak absorption and emission cross sections are about 3 x 10^-24 m² from a Landenburg-Fuchtbauer analysis of the photoluminescence spectra, comparable to measurements on other oxide-based glass amplifiers. The population statistics of the excited Er level, along with the excited-state lifetime, are determined through a novel frequency-domain method in which the spontaneous emission power at 1550 nm is measured as a function of frequency under a modulated 980-nm input. The determined lifetime of 2 ms is comparable to the 2.3 ms measured using a conventional pump-probe technique. The novel analysis technique yields the population statistics of the excited Er atoms and the lifetime of the excited Er state under given pumping conditions independent of the unknown and variable coupling in and out of the waveguide. This method predicts zero net gain at 70 mW, about what is observed. Comparison of calculated gain and absorption based on Er density and measured cross sections with measured gains suggest that only about 20%-30% of the Er in the material is optically active. A 4.7-cm-long sample demonstrated a signal enhancement of ~ 13 dB. Cavity characteristics were measured using an analysis of coherent reflection under no pumping. The facet reflectivity was determined to be 0.27, and the scattering/absorption loss was 1.05/cm, for a total distributed loss of 1.65/cm in a 4-cm cavity. These losses, compared with an estimated achievable gain of 0.25/cm under full inversion, suggest that optically pumped lasing at this concentration is not possible. Measurements of both the cross sections and population statistics,compared with actual gain and absorption properties, give insight into the contribution of the Er dopant under different conditions and can be used to model and improve rare-earth-based amplifiers.

© 2005 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (22)

I. Bauman, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schofer, J. Sochtig, W. Sholer, H. Suche and R. Wessel, "Erbium doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 355-366, Jun. 1996.

G. N. van den Hoven, J. A. van der Elsken, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen and M. K. Smit, "Absorption and emission cross sections of Er3+ in Al2O3 planar waveguides", J. Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 15, pp. 3338-3341, 1997.

A. Polman, "Erbium doped planar optical amplifiers", in 10th Eur. Conf. Integrated Optical (ECIO), Paderben, Germany,Apr. 2001, pp. 75-79.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi and H. Miyazawa, "Millimeter-Wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 615-619, Apr. 1998.

E. Desurvive, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Application, NY: Wiley, 1994.

B. J. Ainalie, "A review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 220-238, Feb. 1991.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway and W. F. Kruplle, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2619-2630, Nov. 1992.

D. J. Coleman, S. D. Jackson, P. S. Golding and T. A. King, "Spectroscopic and energy transfer measurements for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped PbO-Bi 2O3-Ga2O3 glasses", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 19, pp. 2927-2937, 2002.

C. C. Baker, J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, "Photoluminescent and electroluminescent Zn2Si_0.5Ge_0.5O4: Mn thin films for integrated optic devices", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1420-1426, Nov.-Dec. 2002.

C. C. Baker, J. Heikenfeld, Z. Yu and A. J. Steckl, "Optical amplification and electroluminescence at 1.54 µ m in Er-doped zinc silicate germanate on silicon", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1462-1464, Mar. 2004.

S. Banerjee, C. C. Baker, D. Klotzkin and A. J. Steckl, "Gain characteristics of Er-doped ZSG waveguide optical amplifiers", in Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. Annu. Meeting, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 136-137.

I. V. Voroshilov, V. A. Lebedev, B. V. Ignatiev, A. N. Gavrilenko, V. A. Isaev and V. F. Pisarenko, "Optical properties of CaGd 4Si3O13 (CGS) crystals with Er3+ used as 1.5 µ m laser material", J. Phys., Condens. Matter, vol. 12, pp. L287-L292, 2000.

G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. A. Munoz, R. Nevado, J. A. Sanz-Garcia and F. Cusso, "Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Tb3+ as a waveguide material", Opt. Mat., vol. 13, pp. 181-186, 1999.

C. Huang, L. McCaughan and D. Gill, "Evaluation of absorption and emission cross-sections of ER-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., no. 5, pp. 803-809, May 1994.

C. Strohhofer and A. Polman, "Absorption and emission spectroscopy in Er3+-Yb3+ doped aluminum oxide waveguides", Opt. Mat., vol. 21, pp. 705-712, 2003.

R. Wu, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers and C. Repp, "Fluorescence lifetimes and 980 nm pump energy transfer dynamics in erbium and ytterbium co-doped phosphate laser glasses", presented at the Photonics West, San Jose, CA, Jan. 28-30, 2003.

E. E. Nyein, U. Homerich, J. Heikenfeld, D. S. Lee, A. J. Steckl and J. M. Zavada, "Spectral and time-resolved photoluminescence studies of Eu-doped GaN", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 1655-1657, Mar. 2003.

V. Dierolf, A. B. Kutsenko, C. Sandman, F. Tallian and W. Von der Osten, "Toward new lasers in Ti:Er:LiNbO 3 waveguides: A study of the excited state Er3+ states", J. Appl. Phys. B, vol. 68, pp. 767-775, 1999.

D. E. Mc Cumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra", Phys. Rev., vol. 136, pp. A954-A957, 1964.

C. Labbe, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, R. Moncorge and M. Thuau, "Absolute excited state absorption cross-section measurements in Er3+:LiYF4 for laser application around 2.8 µ m and 551 nm", J. Phys., Condens. Matter., vol. 12, pp. 6943 -6957, 2000.

S. Yakov, Howe and G. Dennis, "Some characteristics of an extremely short-external-cavity laser diode realized by butt coupling a Fabry-Pérot laser diode to a single-mode optical fiber (1998)", J. Appl. Opt., vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 3256-3263, 1999.

H. Haus, Wave Fields in Opto-Electronics, Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

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