Abstract

The output power characteristics of a widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) have been analyzed. The effects of emission wavelength, total intracavity loss, erbium ion clustering, output coupling ratio, and active fiber length are investigated. A comprehensive theoretical model based on a two-level laser model with consideration of pair-induced quenching is proposed. To achieve good performance in an EDFRL, especially for a widely tunable bandwidth of over 100 nm and high slope efficiency, numerical results, which are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results, indicate that minimization of the intracavity loss as well as optimization of the active fiber length and the output coupling ratio are very important. It is found that the existence of erbium ion clusters in the active fiber can help an EDFRL to emit at a longer wavelength, and hence may be favorable for achieving L-band laser although the output power is reduced and the power flatness is degraded significantly. These findings are useful for the design and optimization of erbium-doped fiber lasers, especially for tunable fiber lasers operating in the longer band or L-band.

© 2005 IEEE

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Opt. Lett.

Other

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, T. Kitoh and T. Shibata, "12.5-GHz spaced 1.28-Tb/s (512-channel x 2.5 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission over 320-km SMF using multiwavelength generation technique", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 405 -407, 2002.

A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, C. Riviere, F. Babin, G. He, V. Roy and G. W. Schinn, "A broadly tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser: Experimentation and modeling", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 7, pp. 22-29, 2001.

X. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, P. Shum, H.-Y. Tam and X. Dong, "Linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser with over 100 nm tuning range", Opt. Exp., vol. 11, pp. 1689-1694, 2003.

X. Dong, H.-Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, C.-L. Zhao and X. Dong, "High power erbium-doped fiber ring laser with widely tunable range over 100 nm", Opt. Commun., vol. 224, no. 4-6, pp. 295-299, 2003.

T. Pfeiffer, H. Schmuck and H. Bülow, "Output power characteristics of erbium-doped fiber ring laser", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 847 -849, 1992.

M. Mignon and E. Desurvire, "An analytical model for the determination of optimal output reflectivity and fiber length in erbium-doped fiber lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 850 -852, 1992.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, "Effects of concentration and clusters in erbium-doped fiber lasers", Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 23, pp. 2014-2016, 1993.

X. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, P. Shum, B.-O. Guan, H.-Y. Tam and X. Dong, "Concentration-induced nonuniform power in tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 358-360, 2004.

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, C. C. Chan, B.-O. Guan and H.-Y. Tam, "Effects of active fiber length on tunability of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers", Opt. Exp., vol. 11, no. 26, pp. 3622-3627, 2003.

J. Nilsson, B. Jaskorzynska and P. Blixt, "Performance reduction and design modification of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers resulting form pair-induced quenching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 1427-1429, 1993.

B. N. Samson, W. H. Loh and J. P. De Sandro, "Experimental evidence of differences in the absorption spectra of clustered and isolated ions in erbium-doped fibers", Opt. Lett. , vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1763-1765, 1997.

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier and D. B. Ostrowsky, "Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers", Opt. Lett. , vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2487-2489, 1995.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs and B. Jaskorzynska, "Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+ -doped fiber amplifiers: Experiments and modeling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 996-998, 1991.

P. Myslinski, D. Nguyen and J. Chrostowski, "Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, pp. 112-1120, 1997.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, "Modeling of ion pairs in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers", Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 347-349, 1994.

H. Masuda, A. Takada and K. Aida, "Modeling the gain degradation of high concentration erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by introducing inhomogeneous cooperative up-conversion", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1789-1799, 1992.

J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. Stone, D. J. Digiovanni, L. W. Stulz, H. M. Presby, A. Piccirilli and P. E. Pramayon, "Electrically tunable, diode-pumped erbium-doped fiber ring laser with fiber Fabry-Perot etalon", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 1950-1951, 1991.

S. Yamashita and M. Nishihara, "Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser over 80 nm", in Proc. 5th Asia-Pacific Conf. Communications/4th Optoelectionics Communications Conf. (APCC/OECC'99), vol. 2, 1999, pp. 1509- 1510.

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