Abstract

We demonstrate that stress engineering is an effective tool to modify or eliminate polarization dispersion in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide devices, for a wide range of waveguide cross-section shapes and dimensions. The stress-induced effects on the modal birefringence of SOI waveguides are investigated numerically and experimentally. Finite-element simulations show that while the birefringence of ridge waveguides with both slanted and vertical sidewalls can be effectively modified using cladding stress, the birefringence becomes much less sensitive to dimension fluctuations with decreasing sidewall slope. To efficiently simulate the stress-induced effects we propose a normalized plane-strain model which can achieve comparable accuracy as a fully generalized plane-strain model but requires significantly less computational resources. Excellent agreement is achieved between the calculated and measured birefringence tuning using SiO2 cladding induced stress. Finally, both calculations and experiments confirm that cladding induced stress can be used to eliminate the birefringence in SOI waveguides of arbitrary shapes, for typical SiO2 film stress values (sigma_film approximately -100 to -300 MPa) and cladding thicknesses of the order of 1 µm or less.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides , New York: Academic, 2000.
  2. L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths", Opt. Commun., vol. 210, pp. 43-49, 2002.
  3. M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3593, 2000, pp. 11-18.
  4. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr and W. N. Ye, "Control and compensation of birefringence in SOI waveguides", in Proc. 16th Annual Meet. IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2003) , Oct. 2003, p. 590.
  5. "Landolt-Bornstein:Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology: New Series. Group III, Crystal, and Solid State Physics", vol. 11, pp. 512-513, 1979.
  6. M. Huang, "Stress effects on the performance of optical waveguides", Int. J. Sol. Structures, vol. 40, pp. 1615-1632, 2003.
  7. S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.
  8. M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 625-633, Apr. 1994.
  9. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba and Y. Tsuji, "Stress analysis method for elastically anisotropic material based optical waveguides and its application to strain-induced optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 255-259, Feb. 1999.
  10. X.-Z. Zhao, Y.-Z. Xu and C. Li, "Birefringence control in optical planar waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2352-2357, Oct. 2003.
  11. K. Röll, "Analysis of stress and strain distribution in thin films and substrates", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 47, pp. 3224-3229, 1976.
  12. W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, M. Picard, B. Lamontagne and N. G. Tarr, "Stress-induced effects on birefringence for silion-on-insultor (SOI) waveguides", in Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., San Jose, CA, Jan. 2004, pp. 57-66.
  13. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. Picard and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides using the cladding stress", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2384-2386, 2004.
  14. D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M. Picard and W. N. Ye, "Prospects and challenges for microphotonic waveguide components based on Si and SiGe", in SiGe: Materials, Processing, Devices Symp., Proc. Electrochemical Soc. (ECS '04), vol. 2004-07, Oct. 2004, pp. 619-633.
  15. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz and D. Dalacu, "Control of SOI waveguide polarization properties for microphotonic applications", in Proc. 5th CLEO-Pacific Rim, Dec. 2003, p. 5.
  16. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1971-1974, Aug. 1991.
  17. P. Cheben, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4293, 2001, pp. 15-22.
  18. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5117, 2003, pp. 147-156.
  19. S. Janz, "Silicon-based waveguide technology for wavelength division multiplexing," in Silicon Photonics, L. Pavesi, and D. Lockwood, Eds. Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2004, ch. 10.

Other

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides , New York: Academic, 2000.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunication wavelengths", Opt. Commun., vol. 210, pp. 43-49, 2002.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3593, 2000, pp. 11-18.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, S. Janz, M.-J. Picard, N. G. Tarr and W. N. Ye, "Control and compensation of birefringence in SOI waveguides", in Proc. 16th Annual Meet. IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2003) , Oct. 2003, p. 590.

"Landolt-Bornstein:Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology: New Series. Group III, Crystal, and Solid State Physics", vol. 11, pp. 512-513, 1979.

M. Huang, "Stress effects on the performance of optical waveguides", Int. J. Sol. Structures, vol. 40, pp. 1615-1632, 2003.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 625-633, Apr. 1994.

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba and Y. Tsuji, "Stress analysis method for elastically anisotropic material based optical waveguides and its application to strain-induced optical waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 255-259, Feb. 1999.

X.-Z. Zhao, Y.-Z. Xu and C. Li, "Birefringence control in optical planar waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2352-2357, Oct. 2003.

K. Röll, "Analysis of stress and strain distribution in thin films and substrates", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 47, pp. 3224-3229, 1976.

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, M. Picard, B. Lamontagne and N. G. Tarr, "Stress-induced effects on birefringence for silion-on-insultor (SOI) waveguides", in Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., San Jose, CA, Jan. 2004, pp. 57-66.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. Picard and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides using the cladding stress", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2384-2386, 2004.

D.-X. Xu, J.-M. Baribeau, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, M. Picard and W. N. Ye, "Prospects and challenges for microphotonic waveguide components based on Si and SiGe", in SiGe: Materials, Processing, Devices Symp., Proc. Electrochemical Soc. (ECS '04), vol. 2004-07, Oct. 2004, pp. 619-633.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz and D. Dalacu, "Control of SOI waveguide polarization properties for microphotonic applications", in Proc. 5th CLEO-Pacific Rim, Dec. 2003, p. 5.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1971-1974, Aug. 1991.

P. Cheben, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4293, 2001, pp. 15-22.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5117, 2003, pp. 147-156.

S. Janz, "Silicon-based waveguide technology for wavelength division multiplexing," in Silicon Photonics, L. Pavesi, and D. Lockwood, Eds. Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2004, ch. 10.

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