Abstract

This paper presents simple fabrication of optical waveguides using a novel photosensitive polyimide (PSPI). PSPI has a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 330 °C and is directly patterned by ultraviolet (UV) exposure and wet-chemical development, lending itself to low-cost fabrication techniques. The fabricated waveguides possess low optical absorption at 1.3 and 1.5 µm. Single and multimode buried ridge waveguides were made and tested, and a 0.4-dB/cm optical propagation loss is measured at 1.55 µm.

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  1. L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 54-68, Jan./Feb. 2000.
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  13. K. Tamaki, T. Utaka, H. Takase, Y. Eriyama and T. Ukachi, "Photolithographic properties of photo-sensitive sol-gel materials and their application to optical waveguides", J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 103-108, 2002.
  14. A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, T. C. Kowalczyk and K. D. Singer, "Optical polyimides for single-mode waveguides", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 1849, 1993, pp. 92- 103.
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  17. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen and S. I. Najafi, "Fabrication of low loss polyimide optical waveguides using thin-film multichip module process technology", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 1529-1533, 1993.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (16)

T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi and N. Yamada, "Polyimide derived from 2, 2^\prime -bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4^\prime -diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2 ^\prime -bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride", Macromolecules, vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 5001-5005, 1991.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi and Y. Hasuda, "Polyimides derived from 2, 2^\prime -bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4 ^\prime -diaminobiphenyl. 3. Property control with polymer blends and copolymerization of fluorinated polyimides", Macromolecules, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 419-423, 1993.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi and Y. Hasuda, "Polyimides derived from 2, 2 ^\prime -bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4^\prime -diaminobiphenyl. 4 Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components", Macromolecules, vol. 27, pp. 6665-6670, 1994.

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki and T. Maruno, "Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss and their applications to thermo-optic switches", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1024-1029, Jun. 1998.

J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura and T. Maruno, "Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides", IEICE Trans. Electron , vol. E81-C, no. 7, pp. 1020-1026, 1998.

A. Mochizuki, N. Kurata and T. Fukuoka, "Development of photosensitive polyimide with low dielectric constant", J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 17-22, 2001.

A. Mochizuki and M. Ueda, "Recent development in photosensitive polyimide (PSPI)", J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 677 -688, 2001.

A. Mochizuki, T. Fukuoka, M. Kanada, N. Kinjou and T. Yamamoto, "Development of photosensitive porous-polyimide with low dielectric constant", J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 159 -166, 2002.

K.-H. Kim, S. Jang and F. W. Harris, "Synthesis and characterization of photosensitive polyimides for optical applications", Macromolecules, vol. 34, no. 26, pp. 8925-8933, 2001.

K. Tamaki, T. Utaka, H. Takase, Y. Eriyama and T. Ukachi, "Photolithographic properties of photo-sensitive sol-gel materials and their application to optical waveguides", J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 103-108, 2002.

A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, T. C. Kowalczyk and K. D. Singer, "Optical polyimides for single-mode waveguides", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 1849, 1993, pp. 92- 103.

A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, K. D. Singer and T. C. Kowalczyk, "Fabrication of low loss polyimide optical waveguides using thin-film multichip module process technology", IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol. B, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 232-234, 1995.

T. Omote and T. Yamaoka, "A new positive-type photoreactive polymide precursor using 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivative", Polym. Eng. Sci., vol. 32, pp. 1634-1641, 1992.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen and S. I. Najafi, "Fabrication of low loss polyimide optical waveguides using thin-film multichip module process technology", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 1529-1533, 1993.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 54-68, Jan./Feb. 2000.

R. Schriever, H. Frank, H. G. Festl and E. Kratzig, "Waveguiding in doped PMMA", Polymer, vol. 26, p. 1426, 1985.

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