Abstract

Optimal design of planar wavelength circuits based on Mach-Zehnder interferometers and their cascaded forms is presented with the wavelength dependence of the directional couplers considered. A simple approximate formula is presented to calculate quickly the wavelength-dependent phase difference for a directional coupler. By using this simple and effective formula and the genetic algorithm, a broadband coupler (1450-1650 nm) based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a flat-top passband coarse wavelength division demultiplexer (with a channel spacing of 20 nm) based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers are optimally designed.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1326-1327, 1990.
  2. M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata and A. Himeno, "Flat-passband interleave filter with 200 GHz channel spacing based on planar lightwave circuit-type lattice structure", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 15, pp. 1299-1300, 2000.
  3. M. Kuznetsov, "Cascaded coupler Mach-Zehnder channel dropping filters for wavelength-division-multiplexed optical systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 226-230, 1994.
  4. H. H. Yaffe, C. H. Henry, M. R. Serbin and L. G. Cohen, "Resonant couplers acting as add-drop filters made with silica-on-silicon waveguide technology", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1010-1014, 1994.
  5. K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto and K. Moriwaki, "Planar lightwave circuit dispersion equalizer", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2003-2011, 1996.
  6. K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh and M. Kawachi, "Two-port optical wavelength circuits composed of cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with point-symmetical configurations", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2301-2310, 1996.
  7. D. S. Weile and E. Michielssen, "Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 343-353, 1997.
  8. Q. Wang, S. He and F. Chen, "An effective and accurate method for the design of directional couplers", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1233-1238, 2002.
  9. Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron., vol. 143, no. 5, pp. 263-280, 1996.
  10. Q. Wang and S. He, "A simple, fast and accurate method of designing directional couplers by evaluating the phase difference of local supermodes", J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 449-453, 2003.
  11. B. E. Little and T. Murphy, "Design rules for maximally flat wavelength-insensitive optical power dividers using Mach-Zehnder structures", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1607-1609, 1997.
  12. M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, Y. Inoue, K. Jinguji, A. Himeno and Y. Hibino, "Four-channel flat-top and low-loss filter for wide passband WDM access network", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 514-515, 2001.
  13. K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, "Synthesis of coherent two-port lattice-form optical delay-line circuit", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 73-82, 1995.
  14. Q. Wang, J. Lu and S. He, "Optimal design method of a low-loss broadband Y-branch with a multimode waveguide section", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 36, pp. 7644-7649, 2002.
  15. Y. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata and Y. Hibino, "Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit", in OFC2002, 2002, pp. 75-76.

Other (15)

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio", Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1326-1327, 1990.

M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata and A. Himeno, "Flat-passband interleave filter with 200 GHz channel spacing based on planar lightwave circuit-type lattice structure", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 15, pp. 1299-1300, 2000.

M. Kuznetsov, "Cascaded coupler Mach-Zehnder channel dropping filters for wavelength-division-multiplexed optical systems", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 226-230, 1994.

H. H. Yaffe, C. H. Henry, M. R. Serbin and L. G. Cohen, "Resonant couplers acting as add-drop filters made with silica-on-silicon waveguide technology", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1010-1014, 1994.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto and K. Moriwaki, "Planar lightwave circuit dispersion equalizer", J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2003-2011, 1996.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh and M. Kawachi, "Two-port optical wavelength circuits composed of cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with point-symmetical configurations", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2301-2310, 1996.

D. S. Weile and E. Michielssen, "Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 343-353, 1997.

Q. Wang, S. He and F. Chen, "An effective and accurate method for the design of directional couplers", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1233-1238, 2002.

Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron., vol. 143, no. 5, pp. 263-280, 1996.

Q. Wang and S. He, "A simple, fast and accurate method of designing directional couplers by evaluating the phase difference of local supermodes", J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 449-453, 2003.

B. E. Little and T. Murphy, "Design rules for maximally flat wavelength-insensitive optical power dividers using Mach-Zehnder structures", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1607-1609, 1997.

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, Y. Inoue, K. Jinguji, A. Himeno and Y. Hibino, "Four-channel flat-top and low-loss filter for wide passband WDM access network", Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 514-515, 2001.

K. Jinguji and M. Kawachi, "Synthesis of coherent two-port lattice-form optical delay-line circuit", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 73-82, 1995.

Q. Wang, J. Lu and S. He, "Optimal design method of a low-loss broadband Y-branch with a multimode waveguide section", Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 36, pp. 7644-7649, 2002.

Y. Inoue, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, M. Ishii, T. Shibata and Y. Hibino, "Low-crosstalk 4-channel coarse WDM filter using silica-based planar-lightwave-circuit", in OFC2002, 2002, pp. 75-76.

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