Abstract

This paper describes the distributed Raman amplification (DRA) transmission characteristic in an optical fiber both numerically and experimentally. The paper clarifies the relationship between optical fiber parameters and DRA transmission performance with regard to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) characteristics and nonlinear impairments. These relationships can be successfully discussed, taking account of various fiber parameters, including Raman gain efficiency, the attenuation coefficient at signal and pump wavelengths, the Rayleigh scattering coefficient, and the nonlinear refractive index, as a function of the relative index difference in an optical fiber. An example of an optimum fiber design for a DRA-based dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) transmission system is also discussed.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. H. Suzuki, J. Kani, H. Masuda, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, Y. Tada and M. Sumida, "1-Tb/s (100 x 10 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission with 25-GHz channel spacing in the zero-dispersion region employing distributed Raman amplification technology", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 903-905, 2000.
  2. B. Zhu, L. Leng, L. E. Nelson, Y. Qian, S. Stulz, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, S. Chandrasekar, S. Radic, D. Vengsarkar, Z. Chen, J. Park, K. Feder, H. Thiele, J. Bromage, L. Gruner-Nielsen and S. Knudsen, "3.08 Tb/s (77 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 1200 km of nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber with 100-km spans using C and L-band distributed Raman amplification", in Proc. OFC 2001, vol. PD23, 2001.
  3. S. Wabnitz and G. L. Meur, "Nonlinear and noise limitations in dispersion-managed soliton wavelength-division multiplexing transmissions with distributed Raman amplification", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 777-779, 2001.
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  7. D. Hamoir, N. Torabi, A. Bergonzo, S. Borne and D. Bayart, "Raman spectra of line fibers measured over 30 THz", in Proc. SOFM2000, 2000, pp. 147- 149.
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  9. B. Dany, O. Leclerc, F. Neddam and P. Le Lourec, "Optimization of 40 Gbit/s dispersion maps for long-haul WDM transmissions with up to 0.4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency", in Proc. OFC2001, vol. TuN5, 2001.
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  13. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Boston: Academic Press Inc, 1995.
  14. K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, "Dopant dependence of effective nonlinear refractive index in GeO2 -and F-doped core single-mode fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 492 -494, 2002.
  15. P. S. Henry, "Lightwave primer", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, pp. 1862-1879, 1985.
  16. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini and S. Benedetto, "System impact of parametric gain: A novel method for the BER evaluation", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. 2000, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 656-659.
  17. M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith and W. J. Hallam, "Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, pp. 812-817, 1998.

Other (17)

H. Suzuki, J. Kani, H. Masuda, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, Y. Tada and M. Sumida, "1-Tb/s (100 x 10 Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission with 25-GHz channel spacing in the zero-dispersion region employing distributed Raman amplification technology", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 903-905, 2000.

B. Zhu, L. Leng, L. E. Nelson, Y. Qian, S. Stulz, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, S. Chandrasekar, S. Radic, D. Vengsarkar, Z. Chen, J. Park, K. Feder, H. Thiele, J. Bromage, L. Gruner-Nielsen and S. Knudsen, "3.08 Tb/s (77 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 1200 km of nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber with 100-km spans using C and L-band distributed Raman amplification", in Proc. OFC 2001, vol. PD23, 2001.

S. Wabnitz and G. L. Meur, "Nonlinear and noise limitations in dispersion-managed soliton wavelength-division multiplexing transmissions with distributed Raman amplification", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 777-779, 2001.

R. H. Stolen, "Nonlinearity in fiber transmission", Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, pp. 1232-1236, 1980.

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi and T. Edahiro, "Raman spectra of binary high-silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2 O3", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 45, pp. 115-126, 1981.

F. Koch, S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Broadband Raman gain characterization in various optical fibers", in Proc. SOFM2000, 2000, pp. 143- 146.

D. Hamoir, N. Torabi, A. Bergonzo, S. Borne and D. Bayart, "Raman spectra of line fibers measured over 30 THz", in Proc. SOFM2000, 2000, pp. 147- 149.

R. J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, J. Bromage and C. H. Kim, "Design of bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifiers generating double Rayleigh backscattering", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 914-916, 2002.

B. Dany, O. Leclerc, F. Neddam and P. Le Lourec, "Optimization of 40 Gbit/s dispersion maps for long-haul WDM transmissions with up to 0.4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency", in Proc. OFC2001, vol. TuN5, 2001.

C. Fukai, K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, "Dopant dependence of Raman gain coefficient in fluorine doped silica fiber", in Proc. OECC2002, vol. 10D2-6, 2002, pp. 186- 187.

M. Ohashi, K. Shiraki and K. Tajima, "Optical loss property of silica-based single-mode fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, pp. 539-543, 1992.

E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of the backscattering method for single-mode optical fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 1010-1012, 1980.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Boston: Academic Press Inc, 1995.

K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, "Dopant dependence of effective nonlinear refractive index in GeO2 -and F-doped core single-mode fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 492 -494, 2002.

P. S. Henry, "Lightwave primer", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, pp. 1862-1879, 1985.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini and S. Benedetto, "System impact of parametric gain: A novel method for the BER evaluation", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. 2000, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 656-659.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith and W. J. Hallam, "Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, pp. 812-817, 1998.

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